Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:OECD
MENESR-DGRH.

 Coverage:Whole of France - public sector.

chart 04.01a and chart 04.01b, chart 04.02, chart 04.03a and chart 04.03b, chart 04.04: in May 2014, exploitation of management files on higher education teaching staff (RH-SUPINFO and GESUP2) and the survey of non-tenured teachers carried out in higher education institutions by the Department for Workforce Studies and Human Resource Analysis at the Directorate-General for Human Resources (Direction générale des ressources humaines – Département des études d’effectif et d’analyses des ressources humaines - DGRH A1-1). The resulting numbers of potential teacher-researchers and teaching staff represents active staff, with or without tenure. Those who are on secondment in a different establishment from the one to which they are posted, who have been placed on 'availability' or are on holiday, are therefore excluded. The broad Law discipline includes law, economics and management. Non-permanent staff consists of doctoral students under contract who carry out teaching duties, temporary teaching and research assistants, foreign language readers and teachers, guest or associated teaching staff, and teachers under contract from secondary education posts.

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04 teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research

This page has been updated. Read 04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsability of the french ministry of education, higher education and research in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2013-2014, 91,800 teachers were working in public higher education establishments under the responsibility of the MENESR, out of a total of about 150,000. In 2012, France had 15.6 students per teacher against an average of only 14.4 in the OECD countries. A quarter of these employees are posted in the Ile-de-France region.

In 2014, the teaching and research potential in public higher education establishments under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - MENESR) was 91,800 teachers (+1.3% compared with the previous year) which included 57,000 teacher-researchers and equivalent, or 62% of all staff (chart 04.01a). Secondary teachers working in higher education and non-tenured teachers represented 14.2% and 23.7% of teachers respectively.

94.4% of these staff members are posted to universities (chart 04.01b).

The number of tenured teachers and trainee teachers has increased substantially over the last decade (+4.9% between 2004 and 2014), after recording even higher growth rates in the decade before (chart 04.03a). These changes reflect the strong growth in student numbers over the same periods. Between 2004 and 2014, the rate of increase was similar for university professors (+6.8%) and lecturers (+6.7%). The category of non-tenured teachers showed some contrasting trends over the period in question. Numbers rose sharply between 1993 and 2003 (+61%), then continued to increase, but at a slower pace, until 2009. Since then they have decreased.

Science subjects account for 41.2% of all staff, Arts and Humanities 30.1%, Law, Economics and Management 14.3% and Health and Medicine 14.4% (chart 04.02). In ten years, the number of tenured teacher-researchers (excluding assistants and specific groups) has increased by 7.6%. This increase masks some disparities between subjects: +15.1% in Law, Economics and Management, +9.6% in Arts and Humanities (which includes +14.6% for Humanities), and +6.4% across all scientific subjects (including +11.2% for Engineering Sciences and +9.4% for Mathematics and Computer Technology). Physics and Chemistry (7% and –0.9% respectively) are in decline.

The average age of university professors is 53 years and 8 months and for tenured or trainee lecturers it is 44 years and 11 months (chart 04.04). This age gap is linked to career advancement: professors are recruited predominantly from among the corps of lecturers.

The proportion of women in the corps of teacher-researchers is increasing steadily. It is growing at a regular rate of about 0.5 points per year, and increased between 1994 and 2014 from 12.9% to 22.5% for professors and from 35.5% to 43.6% for lecturers. Among secondary teachers working in higher education, the proportion of women and the increase in their numbers is similar to that for lecturers. Overall, there is a higher rate of women in Arts and Humanities and Pharmacy than in Sciences, Law and Medicine. In addition, in recent years among lecturers in the 30-39 age bracket, women now predominate in Law, Arts and the Health disciplines.

Secondary teachers working in higher education represent 14.2% of all staff (chart 04.01a) or 13,069 employees. Of these, 53.4% are agrégé teachers (secondary teachers with the highest qualifications), of whom 92.4% are appointed to universities (with about one third going into University Technology Institutes (Institut universitaire de technologie - IUT)) and 7.6% to engineering schools. They mainly teach Economics and Management, Languages and Literature, History and geography, Mathematics, Mechanics and Physical Education and Sports Science and Techniques (Sciences et techniques des activités physiques et sportives - STAPS).

One quarter of all potential teaching staff in active employment in the higher education sector are assigned to the Ile-de-France region. More than half (54.5%) of these potential staff work in the five largest regions of France (Ile-de-France, Rhône-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Midi-Pyrénées). This territorial distribution is virtually the same as for students.

In France in 2012, the ratio of students to teaching staff in higher education was 15.6 (chart 04.05) compared with an average of 14.4 in the OECD countries.

📄 Sources:OECD
MENESR-DGRH.
 Coverage:Whole of France - public sector.

How to cite this paper :

BIDEAULT Marc. Teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 04, 18-19 [Accessed 04/22/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_ES_04-teaching_staff_in_public_higher_education_under_the_responsibility_of_the_french_ministry_of_education_higher_education_and_research-ILL_03a.php

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chart 04.01a and chart 04.01b, chart 04.02, chart 04.03a and chart 04.03b, chart 04.04: in May 2014, exploitation of management files on higher education teaching staff (RH-SUPINFO and GESUP2) and the survey of non-tenured teachers carried out in higher education institutions by the Department for Workforce Studies and Human Resource Analysis at the Directorate-General for Human Resources (Direction générale des ressources humaines – Département des études d’effectif et d’analyses des ressources humaines - DGRH A1-1). The resulting numbers of potential teacher-researchers and teaching staff represents active staff, with or without tenure. Those who are on secondment in a different establishment from the one to which they are posted, who have been placed on 'availability' or are on holiday, are therefore excluded. The broad Law discipline includes law, economics and management. Non-permanent staff consists of doctoral students under contract who carry out teaching duties, temporary teaching and research assistants, foreign language readers and teachers, guest or associated teaching staff, and teachers under contract from secondary education posts.

 

Key figures


Number of teachers
91,770
 teachers
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Number of teacher-researchers
56,908
 teacher-researchers
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Number of secondary teachers working in higher education
13,069
 teachers under contract in secondary education posts
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Number of non-permament teachers
21,793
 non-permament teachers
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
  See more key figures  
Share of teachers in Sciences and technical studies
41.2%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Share of teachers in Arts and Humanities
30.1%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Share of teachers in Law, Economics and Management
14.3%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Share of teachers in Healthcare
14.4%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
  See more key figures  
Share of university professors
22%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Share of lecturers and assistants
40%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Share of teachers under contract in secondary education posts
14%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Share of non-permanent teachers
24%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
  See more key figures  
Number of university professors
20,353
 university professors
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Number of lecturers and assistants
36,555
 lecturers
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Number of secondary teachers working in higher education
13,069
 teachers under contract in secondary education posts
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
Number of non-permament teachers
21,793
 non-permament teachers
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH
  See one more key figure  
Share of teacher-researchers
62%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "04. teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research".

Coverage: teaching staff at higher education institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR)
Source: MENESR-DGRH

04.01a Distribution of serving teachers in higher education by category and type of institution in 2013-2014 (%) - By category

Professors
Lecturers and assistant lecturers
secondary teachers working in higher education
Non-permanent teachers
  
 
 
📄 Source:MENESR-DGRH
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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04.01b Distribution of serving teachers in higher education by category and type of institution in 2013-2014 (%) - By type of instutution

Universities (excl. IUT)
University technology institutes (IUT)
Other institutions
  
 
 

1 Especially ENI, INSA, ENS, and other large institutions.

📄 Source:MENESR-DGRH
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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04.02 Distribution of serving teachers in higher education by major discipline and category in 2013-2014 1

Tenured teacher-researchers
secondary teachers working in higher education
Non-permanent teachers
Total
  
Law, economics and management
Humanities and social sciences
Science and technology
Health
 
 

1 not including 1,087 teacher-researchers belonging to specific corps.

📄 Source:MENESR-DGRH
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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04.03a Trend in number of teachers working in higher education between 1992 and 2014

  
Professors
Lecturers and assistant lecturers
secondary teachers working in higher education
Non-permanent teachers
 
 
📄 Source:MENESR-DGRH
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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04.03b Trend in proportion of women among teachers working in higher education between 1992 and 2014 (%)

  
Professors
Lecturers and assistant lecturers
secondary teachers working in higher education
 
 
📄 Source:MENESR-DGRH
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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04.04 Age pyramid for tenured teacher-researchers in 2013-2014

Professors
 
Lecturers
 
65 and over
60 to 64
55 to 59
50 to 54
45 to 49
40 to 44
35 to 39
Under 35
  
Men
Women
 
 
📄 Source:MENESR-DGRH
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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04.05 Number of students per teacher in higher education institutions in 2012

NO
 
IS
ES
SK
PT
HU
FR 3
EU21
SI
IT 2
 
BE 1
 
SE
DE
FI
OECD
NL
PL
US
AT
IE
GB
 
 
 

1 Excluding private independent institutions.
2 Public institutions only.
3 Public institutions under the responsibility of the MENESR.

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Related statistical publications

 Note d'information DGRH 16.01 - Les personnels enseignants de l'enseignement supérieur du ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - 2013-2014 - Marc Bideault, Julien Thirion, Jérôme Tourbeaux - January 2016
Au cours de l'année universitaire 2013-2014, 92 300 enseignants sont en fonction dans les établissements publics d’enseignement supérieur. Parmi ces enseignants, 56 900 appartiennent aux corps des enseignants-chercheurs titulaires (y compris les corps à statuts spécifiques), 13 100 sont des enseignants du second degré et 22 300 sont des enseignants non permanents (hors chargés d’enseignement vacataires, agents temporaires vacataires et invités). Cet effectif s’est accru de 1,2% entre 2013 et 2014 (+0,7% pour les enseignants-chercheurs titulaires).
 Note d'information DGRH 15.01 - Les personnels enseignants de l'enseignement supérieur de l'année universitaire 2012-2013 - Marc Bideault, Pasquin Rossi
Durant l'année universitaire 2012-2013, près de 91 000 enseignants (personnes physiques) ont été en fonction dans les établissements publics d'enseignement supérieur sous tutelle du MESR. Parmi ces enseignants, 56 600 appartiennent au corps des ennseignants-chercheurs -y compris les corps à statuts spécifiques. Leur effectif est resté stable par rapport à l'année précédente (+ 0,2 %). 13 100 enseignants du second degré et 21 000 enseignants non permaments participent à cet encadrement universitaire.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
04 - teaching staff in public higher education under the responsability of the french ministry of education, higher education and research - Marc Bideault & Jérôme Tourbeaux
In 2015-16, 92,200 teachers were working in public higher education establishments under the responsibility of the MENESR. Three-quarters of these teachers are employed in universities and 39% of tenured-teachers are women [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
04 - teaching staff in public higher education under the responsibility of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research - Marc Bideault
In 2014-15, 91,800 teachers were working in public higher education establishments under the responsibility of the MENESR, out of a total of about 155,000 people. In 2013, France had 15.6 students per teacher against an average of only 17.3 in the OECD countries. A quarter of these employees are posted in the Ile-de-France region [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
04 - les personnels enseignants de l'enseignement supérieur public sous tutelle du MENESR - Marc Bideault
En 2013-2014, 91 800 enseignants exercent dans les établissements publics d’enseignement supérieur sous tutelle du MENESR, sur un total d’environ 150 000 personnes. La France compte, en 2012, 15,6 étudiants par enseignant contre seulement 14,4 en moyenne dans les pays de l’OCDE. Le quart de ces personnels est affecté en Ile-de-France [Consult the following page in french]


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