Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:OECD
MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

Several methodological changes were made to the survey of institutions that fall within the ‘government’ institutional sector in 2010. As a result, R&D carried out by government departments and certain dedicated state research institutions was assessed using a new method that made it possible to distinguish their funding activities more effectively. This resulted in the estimate for GOVERD being revised downwards by around €1 billion (including €850 million for defence).

In accordance with international statistical standards, the five institutional sectors used for the purposes of international statistics are: government (including defence), higher education, private non-profit, business enterprise (state-owned and private) and abroad (including international organisations).

The ‘government’, ‘higher education’ and ‘private non-profit’ sectors all fall under the heading of ‘government’ or ‘public sector’. This sector also includes EPSTs, EPICs, public administrative bodies (établissements publics à caractère administratif – EPA) and government departments (including defence). The ‘higher education’ institutional sector is made up of higher education institutions (universities and Grandes Écoles), university hospitals and French Comprehensive Cancer Centres (Centres de lutte contre le cancer – CLCC). The CNRS is deemed to be part of the higher education sector for the purposes of comparing France with other countries.

Within the ‘business enterprise’ institutional sector, GERD is broken down into one or more economic activity branches that benefit from R&D. These 32 branches are taken from the 2008 version of the French classification of activities (Nomenclature d’activités française – NAF) (NAF Rev. 2).

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27 gross domestic expenditure on research and development

This page has been updated. Read 27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2012, half of intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) was focused on six of the 32 industrial branches that benefit from R&D (‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’, ‘Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’, ‘Computer-related and information service activities’, ‘Professional, scientific and technical activities’ and ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’). In the public sector, dedicated research institutions (EPST and EPIC) carried out 55% of all R&D funded by intramural government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD).

In 2012, BERD totalled €30.1 billion, while GOVERD was €16.5 billion. The increase in gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) in comparison with 2011 was due in large part to increased business expenditure (3.0% in real terms), while government expenditure remained stable (0.1% in real terms) (table 27.01). In 2013, this growth in GERD is expected to slow (0.5% in real terms) due to a smaller increase in BERD (0.8%) and a virtual stagnation in GOVERD (0.1%).

The breakdown of BERD among the main fields of research reveals a marked concentration (table 27.02). Six of the 32 research areas receive half of France’s R&D resources: ‘manufacture of motor vehicles’ (15% of BERD); ‘manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’ (11%); ‘manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’ (10%); ‘computer-related and information service activities’ (7%); ‘professional, scientific and technical activities’ (6%); and ‘manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’ (5%). In the space of around ten years, the ‘manufacture of motor vehicles’ field has become more dominant, primarily to the detriment of ‘manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’ (which was France’s main R&D field up until 1997). Taken as a whole, research fields within the service sector received 20% of BERD (€6.1 billion). In the past 3 years, R&D expenditure in research fields within the service sector has shown significant growth, increasing by 11.7% a year on average in real terms, in comparison with a fall of 1.5% a year in real terms in industrial R&D expenditure.

In 2012, 65% of businesses in France carried out R&D, placing France ahead of the United Kingdom (63%) but far behind South Korea (78%), Japan (77%), the United States (70%) and Germany (68%) (chart 27.03). However, it should be noted when making comparisons with other countries that R&D by French businesses does not cover the country’s entire technological and industrial field. A considerable proportion of high-level technological R&D is carried out by dedicated state research institutions and foundations.

Public research is carried out by dedicated research institutions (accounting for 55% of GOVERD in 2012), higher education institutions (40%), the private non-profit sector (4%) and government departments and other state institutions (1%) (chart 27.04). In 2012, state-owned scientific and technological establishments (établissements publics à caractère scientifique et technologique – EPST) carried out 32% of GOVERD-funded R&D. They varied widely in size, from the multidisciplinary National Centre for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique – CNRS), which conducted 19% of GOVERD-funded R&D, to the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (Institut national de la recherche agronomique – INRA) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale – INSERM), both of which accounted for 5% of GOVERD. State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (établissements publics à caractère industriel et commercial – EPIC) were responsible for 23% of GOVERD-funded R&D. R&D was also highly concentrated among EPICs, with 14% of GOVERD going to the civil division of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives – CEA) and 3% to the French Government Space Agency (Centre national d’études spatiales – CNES), with the remaining EPICs accounting for 5% of GOVERD. Between 2011 and 2012, GERD fell in real terms among EPICs (-5.7%). However, R&D expenditure increased in real terms in the not-for-profit (+ 10.3%) and higher education (+ 2.6%) sectors, as well as, to a lesser extent, among EPSTs (+ 0.8%).

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DAVID Catherine. Gross domestic expenditure on research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 27, 64-65 [Accessed 04/21/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_R_27-gross_domestic_expenditure_on_research_and_development-ILL_01.php

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Several methodological changes were made to the survey of institutions that fall within the ‘government’ institutional sector in 2010. As a result, R&D carried out by government departments and certain dedicated state research institutions was assessed using a new method that made it possible to distinguish their funding activities more effectively. This resulted in the estimate for GOVERD being revised downwards by around €1 billion (including €850 million for defence).

In accordance with international statistical standards, the five institutional sectors used for the purposes of international statistics are: government (including defence), higher education, private non-profit, business enterprise (state-owned and private) and abroad (including international organisations).

The ‘government’, ‘higher education’ and ‘private non-profit’ sectors all fall under the heading of ‘government’ or ‘public sector’. This sector also includes EPSTs, EPICs, public administrative bodies (établissements publics à caractère administratif – EPA) and government departments (including defence). The ‘higher education’ institutional sector is made up of higher education institutions (universities and Grandes Écoles), university hospitals and French Comprehensive Cancer Centres (Centres de lutte contre le cancer – CLCC). The CNRS is deemed to be part of the higher education sector for the purposes of comparing France with other countries.

Within the ‘business enterprise’ institutional sector, GERD is broken down into one or more economic activity branches that benefit from R&D. These 32 branches are taken from the 2008 version of the French classification of activities (Nomenclature d’activités française – NAF) (NAF Rev. 2).

 

Key figures


Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in industrial branches
79.8%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in services branches
20.2%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in the 6 main research branches
54%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: Automobile industry, Aeronautics and space construction, Pharmaceutical industry, Information technology and computer service activities, Specialist scientific and technical activities, Chemical industry
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Change in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in industrial branches
1.3%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Change in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in the services branches
3.6%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Part de la dépense intérieure de R&D exécutée par les entreprises
64%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Part de la dépense intérieure de R&D exécutée par les administrations
36%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Automobile industry
4,481 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Aeronautics and space construction
3,182 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Pharmaceutical industry
3,141 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Chemical industry
1,636 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
1,528 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
1,481 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
1,093 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of electrical equipment
991 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Information technology and computer service activities
2,015 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Specialist scientific and technical activities
1,779 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Telecommunications
935 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
908 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Automobile industry
-5.9%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Aeronautics and space construction
9.6%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Pharmaceutical industry
-1.2%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Chemical industry
4.9%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
10.9%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
2.9%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
5.7%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Manufacture of electrical equipment
2%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Information technology and computer service activities
7%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Specialist scientific and technical activities
17.5%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Telecommunications
14.4%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
0.2%
 
2012 against 2011
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Automobile industry
1st
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of Aeronautics and space construction
2nd
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Pharmaceutical industry
3rd
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Information technology and computer service activities
4th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Specialist scientific and technical activities
5th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of the Chemical industry
6th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
7th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
8th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Manufacture of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
9th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of the Manufacture of electrical equipment
10th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Telecommunications
11th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
12th
 research branch
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

27.01 Performance of R&D in France by businesses and the public sector

 
2009 3 2010 4 2011 5 2012 6 2013 7
Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D
BERD (in current €M) 26,426 27,455 28,851 30,071 30,538
BERD (in €M, in real terms at 2010 prices) 26,711 27,455 28,581 29,435 29,657
Annual growth rate in real terms 1 (%) +2.5 +2.8 +4.1 +3.0 +0.8
Intramural government expenditure on R&D 2
GOVERD (in current €M) 15,332 16,014 16,261 16,474 16,621
GOVERD (in €M, in real terms at 2010 prices) 15,497 16,014 16,109 16,126 16,142
Annual growth rate in real terms 1 (%) ns +3.3 +0.6 +0.1 +0.1
 

Break in series in 2010 due to changes in how government R&D expenditure was assessed. The R&D expenditure of government departments and certain dedicated state research institutions was assessed using a new method that made it possible to distinguish their funding activities more effectively. This resulted in the 2009 figure for GERD being revised downwards by around €1 billion.
Since 2006, businesses with more than 0.1 FTE researcher have been included.
1 Evaluated on the basis of the price change for GDP as revised in 2014 (base year = 2010).
2 Government, higher education and the public non-profit sector.
3 2009 figures recalculated to make them comparable with 2010.
4 Change of methodology.
5 Final results.
6 Semi-finalised results.
7 Estimates.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.02 Breakdown of BERD by branch using the research in 2012

 
Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D
In €M As % of the total Change from 2011-2012
in real terms (%)
Industrial branches 23,995 79.8 +1.3
Manufacture of motor vehicles 4,481 14.9 -5.9
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery 3,182 10.6 +9.6
Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations 3,141 10.4 -1.2
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products 1,636 5.4 +4.9
Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation; watches and clocks 1,528 5.1 +10.9
Manufacture of electronic components and boards, computers and peripheral equipment 1,481 4.9 +2.9
Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. 1,093 3.6 +5.7
Manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment 991 3.3 +2.0
Other industrial branches 6,461 21.5 0.0
Service branches 6,075 20.2 +3.6
Computer-related and information service activities 2,015 6.7 +7.0
Professional, scientific and technical activities 1,779 5.9 +17.5
Telecommunications 935 3.1 +14.4
Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting activities 908 3.1 +0.2
Other service branches 440 1.5 +12.3
Total 30,071 100.0 +3.0
 

1 Since 2008, the branches that benefit from R&D have been defined using the second edition of the French classification of activities (Nomenclature d’activités française – NAF Rev. 2).

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.03 Proportion of GERD implemented by businesses and governments in the OECD in 2012 (%)

IL 2
 
JP
FI
SE
FR
EU-28
IT
 
CA
 
KR
US 3
OECD
DE
GB
NL
ES
 
  
Businesses
Government 1
 
 

1 Government, higher education and the private-non-profit sector.
2 Excluding (all or most) defence.
3 Excluding (all or part of) capital expenditure and 2009 data.

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27.04 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D by institutions carrying out public research in 2012 (in €M)

Private non-profit sector
Higher education
CNRS
EPSTs (excluding the CNRS)
EPICs
Government departments and other state institutions
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Related statistical publications

 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 01 - Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure up 1.9% in 2013 - Florian Lezec, Anna Testas - March 2015
According to provisional data, in 2013 intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure (BERD) by firms established in France stood at €30.9 billion. When corrected for price variations, BERD remained buoyant, rising 1.9% in one year. This progress was nevertheless slow in comparison to previous years (+2.9% in 2012, +4.1% in 2011 and +2.8% in 2010). The research effort of business enterprises, which is the ratio of BERD to gross domestic product (GDP), increased to reach 1.46% in 2013, after 1.44% in 2012.
 Repères et références statistiques sur les enseignements, la formation et la recherche - RERS - RERS - 2014 - Recherche et développement - 2014
La R&D française est présentée du point de vue des effectifs de chercheurs, de la dépense intérieure et extérieure, de la répartition des financements entre acteurs privés et publics.
 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 01 - Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure up by 2.7% in 2012 - Collectif - March 2014
According to provisional data, in 2012 intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure (BERD) for companies established in France stood at €30.1 billion. When corrected for price variations, BERD continued to increase, as it has done since 2007. It rose by 2.7% in volume in 2012, slower than the sustained pace of previous years (3.7% in 2011; 2.9% in 2010). The research effort of business enterprises, which is the ratio of BERD to gross domestic product (GDP), was 1.48% in 2012, after 1.44% in 2011.
 Note d'information SIES 13.08 - Foreign business enterprises account for one fifth of private R&D in France - Nicolas Le Ru - October 2013
In 2010, 1,400 foreign business enterprises carried out R&D in one of their subsidiaries located in France: 900 of these firms originate in the European Union, 300 in the United States.

Foreign business enterprises employ 46,700 full-time equivalent staff in France for these R&D activities. Their research teams tend to be less concentrated in the Île-de-France region than the research teams of French firms. The research intensity of French business enterprises in France seems high compared with that of German companies in Germany or British companies in the United Kingdom. This is not the case of the research intensity of foreign business enterprises: worldwide, they are less committed to R&D.
 Note d'information SIES 13.06 - Research and development expenditure in France in 2011 - First estimates for 2012 - Caroline Iannone, Nicolas Le Ru - July 2013
In 2011, gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) stood at €45.0 billion, up by 2.3% in volume compared with 2010. The increase in GERD was the result of significant growth in business R&D expenditure. Business enterprises contributed around 2.2 percentage points to the increase in GERD, with government contributing 0.1 points.
 Note d'information SIES 12.09 - Shortfall in research intensity in French firms? Comparing France and Germany - Nicolas Le Ru - July 2012
Germany carries out more research and development (R&D) than France. This gap is due to a difference in scale between the two countries. It is also due to a greater research intensity in Germany: expenditure on R&D amounts to 2.82% of GDP in Germany, compared to 2.26% in France. The difference can also be attributed to the economic structure of the two countries: most R&D is carried out in industry and in Germany industry plays a more significant role in the economy than in France. In addition, German industry is highly specialised in the most R&D-intensive activities. However, the research intensity in firms that do carry out R&D, although slightly greater in Germany, only accounts for a small difference in this research expenditure. In France, high technology industries allocate a greater proportion of their turnover to research than their German counterparts.


Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
27 - gross domestic expenditure on research and development - Catherine David
In 2014, half of intramural business expenditure on R&D (BERD) was focused on six industrial branches (‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’, ‘Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’, ‘Computer-related and information service activities’, ‘Professional, scientific and technical activities’ and ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’). In the public sector, dedicated research institutions (EPST and EPIC) carried out 54% of all R&D funded by intramural government expenditure (GOVERD) [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
28 - gross domestic expenditure on research and development - Catherine David
In 2013, half of intramural business expenditure on R&D (BERD) was focused on six industrial branches (‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’, ‘Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’, ‘Computer-related and information service activities’, ‘Professional, scientific and technical activities’ and ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’). In the public sector, dedicated research institutions (EPST and EPIC) carried out 54% of all R&D funded by intramural government expenditure (GOVERD) [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
27 - les dépenses intérieures de recherche et développement - Catherine David
En 2012, la moitié de la dépense intérieure de R&D des entreprises se concentre au bénéfice de six des 32 branches d'activités bénéficiaires de travaux de R&D (Automobile, Aéronautique, Pharmacie, Activités informatiques et service d’information, Activités spécialisées, scientifiques et techniques et Chimie). Dans le secteur public, les organismes de recherche (EPST, EPIC) exécutent 55 % de la dépense intérieure de R&D des administrations [Consult the following page in french]


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