Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:Céreq.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

Data for this file are taken from the survey carried out in the spring of 2013 by the Centre for Study and Research in Training and Education Policy (Centre d’études et de recherches sur les qualifications - Céreq). They interviewed 33,500 of the 708,000 young people who left the French educational system in 2010 for a survey called 'Generation 2010'. These Céreq surveys on the occupational integration of young people into working life are carried out at regular three-yearly intervals. They provide the opportunity to interview a new cohort of young people leaving the educational system about their professional path during their first three years in the labour market.

More than 1,900 PhD graduates from France and abroad aged under 35 who presented their thesis between September 2009 and December 2010 were interviewed for this survey. Since 2001, it includes a module specifically for those leaving PhD programmes, so that specific information can be collected on the conditions under which they completed their thesis. At the same time, it also provides information on the labour market situation month by month during the first 3 years of their working life.

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39 occupational integration after three years for graduates awarded a PhD in 2010

This page has been updated. Read 40. occupational integration for 2010 PhD graduates, 5 years after being awarded their degree in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016

Since 2007, the unemployment rate for PhD graduates after three years has stabilised at 10%. This trend continued for those graduating in 2010 with an unemployment rate that was lower than that of university Master's graduates and higher than that of graduates from the Grandes Ecoles. Despite this stabilising trend, occupational integration differs across subject areas and employment conditions after 3 years depend very much on the occupation.

PhD students graduating in 2010 made up a population that was slightly less feminised and from a more privileged social background than most of those leaving higher education, but they entered working life in a difficult economic climate. However, in contrast to the other higher education graduates (apart from graduates from the Grandes Ecoles), their unemployment rate three years after graduation has not worsened, despite varying from one subject area to another (chart 39.01). In 2013, those with a PhD in Engineering sciences (6%) and Computer science and electronics (5%) were least affected by unemployment. In Law, Economics and Management and in Arts, fewer than 10% of PhD graduates were unemployed 3 years after graduating. In Humanities and Social sciences, Chemistry and Earth and Life Sciences, unemployment was above this 10% threshold (chart 39.02). Apart from these subject-related factors, the conditions under which PhD graduates had worked on their thesis were a determining factor in their occupational integration. Those who had been able to obtain an Industrial Agreement for Training through Research (Convention industrielle de formation et de recherche - CIFRE), a doctoral contract or a thesis allowance and those who had been employed as a 'coordinator' were less likely to be unemployed.

At the time that they presented their thesis, 21% of PhD graduates hoped to work in research in industry, while 58% wanted to work in public and academic research. This proportion had fallen 10 points in relation to graduates from the 2007 generation. The growth in assistance provided for integration into the workforce has contributed to encouraging a growing proportion of PhD graduates to consider a career away from public and academic research.

Three years after presenting their thesis, 47% of graduates were working in research in academia and the public sector, 20% were in R&D in the private sector, 17% were in the private sector but not in research and 15% were in the public sector and not in research. More than 50% of PhD graduates who had had a doctoral contract or a thesis allowance and had been a coordinator had a job in public and academic research, 40% of those who had had a CIFRE were working in R&D in the private sector in 2013 (chart 39.03).

After three years in the workplace, PhD graduates, along with engineers, were among the best paid of those leaving higher education. Those that were the best paid were working in private research, most on open-ended employment contracts (88%) and were very satisfied with their jobs. Pay in public and academic research was lower and almost 47% of PhD graduates were still on fixed-term contracts in 2013. Almost a third of PhD graduates in non-research posts considered that they were employed below their level of ability. Those who were most dissatisfied with their professional situation and the least well paid were those in the public sector, not in research (table 39.04).

📄 Source:Céreq.
 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

How to cite this paper :

CALMAND Julien. Occupational integration after three years for graduates awarded a PhD in 2010. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 39, 88-89 [Accessed 04/21/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_R_39-occupational_integration_after_three_years_for_graduates_awarded_a_phd_in_2010-ILL_03.php

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Data for this file are taken from the survey carried out in the spring of 2013 by the Centre for Study and Research in Training and Education Policy (Centre d’études et de recherches sur les qualifications - Céreq). They interviewed 33,500 of the 708,000 young people who left the French educational system in 2010 for a survey called 'Generation 2010'. These Céreq surveys on the occupational integration of young people into working life are carried out at regular three-yearly intervals. They provide the opportunity to interview a new cohort of young people leaving the educational system about their professional path during their first three years in the labour market.

More than 1,900 PhD graduates from France and abroad aged under 35 who presented their thesis between September 2009 and December 2010 were interviewed for this survey. Since 2001, it includes a module specifically for those leaving PhD programmes, so that specific information can be collected on the conditions under which they completed their thesis. At the same time, it also provides information on the labour market situation month by month during the first 3 years of their working life.

 

Key figures


Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs
10%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Chemistry
12%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Law, Economics
9%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Computer science, electronics
5%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Arts
10%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Mathematics-Physics
12%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Humanities and social sciences
11%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Earth and life sciences
11%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs in Engineering sciences
6%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs completing their thesis via an Industrial Agreement for Training through Research (CIFRE)
5%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Unemployment rate 3 years after graduation for PhDs completing their thesis as a paid teaching assistant-coordinator
6%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Share of PhDs working in public or academic research
47%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Share of PhDs working in the public sector excluding research
15%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Share of PhDs working in R&D in the private sector
20%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Share of PhDs working in the private sector excluding research
17%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Median net monthly wage of PhDs working in public or academic research
2,150 
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Median net monthly wage of PhDs working in the public sector excluding reseach
2,082 
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Median net monthly wage of PhDs working in R&D in the private sector
2,400 
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Median net monthly wage of PhDs working in the private sector excluding research
2,417 
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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39.01 Unemployment rate after 3 years for graduates from the 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010 generations (%)

2001
2004
2007
2010
2013
  
PhD graduates
Holders of a Master's degree
Holders of an engineering diploma
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France and Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM) for Generation 2010 survey.

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39.02 Employment rate, unemployment rate and open-ended employment rate in 2013 for PhD graduates from the 2010 generation (%)

Chemistry
Law, Economics
Computer science-electronics
Arts
Mathematics-Physics
Humanities and social sciences
Earth and life sciences
Engineering science
CIFRE
Coordinator allowances
All PhD graduates
  
Employment rate
Unemployment rate
Open-ended employment rate 1
 
 

1 Open-ended employment rate: share of young people with an open-ended employment contract or working as a civil servant.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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39.03 Breakdown in 2013 of PhD graduates from the 2010 generation by type of employer (%)

Chemistry
Law, Economics
Computer science-electronics
Arts
Mathematics-Physics
Humanities and social sciences
Earth and life sciences
Engineering science
CIFRE
Coordinator allowances
All PhD graduates
  
Public or academic research
Public sector excluding research
Private R&D
Private sector excluding research
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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39.04 Conditions of employment in 2013 for PhD graduates from the 2010 generation by type of employer (%, in €)

 
Open-ended employment rate (%) Median net monthly wage (in €) Share of PhD graduates looking for another job (%) Share of PhD graduates who feel poorly paid Share of PhD graduates who feel they are working below their level of ability (%)
Working in public and academic research 53 2,150 30 44 12
Working in the public sector excluding research 55 2,082 28 34 42
Working in private R&D 88 2,400 22 32 23
Working in the private sector excluding research 90 2,417 31 26 36

 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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Related statistical publication

 Bref 316 - Les docteurs : une longue marche vers l’emploi stable - Julien Calmand - December 2013
Après trois ans de vie active, les étudiants ayant obtenu leur thèse en 2007 ont un taux de chômage de 10 %. Pour la première fois depuis plus de 10 ans, ce taux est inférieur à celui des titulaires d’un master 2 universitaire. À court terme,l’emploi à durée indéterminée est loin d’être acquis pour tous les docteurs visant des carrières dans la recherche publique.Toutefois, après cinq ans sur le marché du travail, 94 % des docteurs sont en emploi, avec 86 % d’emplois à durée indéterminée.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
40 - occupational integration for 2010 PhD graduates, 5 years after being awarded their degree - Julien Calmand
In 2015, the unemployment rate for 2010 PhD graduates was close to 7%, compared to 9% two years previously. Despite this improvement, the situation for PhD graduates, in particular for Doctors of Life and Earth Sciences or, to a lesser extent, Arts and Human Sciences, is not as good as for graduates in other disciplines [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
39 - l'insertion à trois ans des docteurs diplômés en 2010 - Julien Calmand
Depuis 2007, le taux de chômage à 3 ans des docteurs s’est stabilisé à 10 %. Cette tendance se poursuit pour les docteurs sortis en 2010 qui ont un taux de chômage inférieur à celui des diplômés de Master universitaire et supérieur à celui des diplômés des grandes écoles. Malgré cette stabilisation, l’insertion est hétérogène selon les disciplines et les conditions d’emploi à 3 ans sont liées aux professions occupées [Consult the following page in french]


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