Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
OECD.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

According to the Frascati manual, drawn up by the OECD, experimental research and development activities (R&D) cover creative work undertaken systematically in order to increase the stock of knowledge for new applications.

In order to measure total R&D expenditure, we can refer either to R&D performance or its funding by two key economic stakeholders: government and businesses. The term ‘government’ is understood here to cover government departments, public research institutions, higher education institutions and not-for-profit organisations. This definition is that used by the OECD.

Two main indicators are used:

gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD), which covers R&D carried out within France (metropolitan France and French overseas departments and territories), regardless of the source of funding;

gross national expenditure on research and development (GNERD), which covers funding from French businesses or government for R&D carried out in France or abroad.

These aggregates are obtained primarily from the results of annual surveys on resources dedicated to R&D by businesses and government. The data on R&D in France come from an annual survey carried out on each institutional sector, which was conducted in 2014 and 2015 for the 2013 financial year.

Changes in expenditure are measured in real terms, i.e. excluding price effects. Variations in R&D expenditure are estimated using the GDP deflator, i.e. the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP. The method for calculating GDP was changed in May 2014 (GDP base year = 2010), (see EESR9EN_Annex_7).

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27 research and experimental development efforts in France

This page has been updated. Read 26. Research and experimental development efforts in France in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

France’s gross domestic expenditure on research and experimental development (GERD) has doubled since 1983 and accounted for 2.24% of GDP (€47.5 billion) in 2013. Businesses alone implemented 65% of R&D expenditure in France and funded 59% of gross national expenditure on R&D.

Overall expenditure on research and experimental development (R&D) is valued either in terms of funding by the French government and businesses, and performed mostly but not exclusively on French territory, or in terms of performance by the French government and businesses on French territory, taking into account foreign funding (see definitions).

In 2013, funding of R&D by French businesses or the government, known as gross national expenditure on R&D (GNERD), accounted for €49.4 billion, i.e. 2.34% of the country’s national wealth (GDP). In 2013, businesses were the main funders of R&D activities, funding 59% of GNERD (diagram 27.01).

In 2013, research and development (R&D) carried out in the national territory represented €47.5 billion in expenditure, or 2.24% of national wealth (GDP). In real terms, i.e. corrected by price effects, domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) increased by 1.3% between 2012 and 2013. Businesses were responsible for 65% of this (table 27.02). In 2014, the increase in GERD should be more moderate (+ 0.7% in volume), with lower growth in both business and government expenditure, but greater than that of GDP (0.2%). Total GERD should reach €48.1bn and R&D efforts should increase (2.26% of GDP).

Over the last 3 years, between 2010 and 2013, growth in research expenditure (2.0% on average per year, in real terms) is greater than GDP by one point (1.1%), thanks to the change in business expenditure (2.8%). By contrast, the growth in government expenditure (0.8%) is lower than that of GDP (1.1%) (chart 27.03).

Over the last ten years, average annual growth in real terms between 2003 and 2013 in business GERD was higher than for the government (2.1% compared to 1.2%).

The difference between business and government is even greater in terms of the change in GNERD with an average annual increase of 3.1% for business between 2003 and 2013, compared to 1.0% for government. Since 1995, the financial contribution of business has been greater than that of government (chart 27.04) but its share is a little below the average for OECD countries.

The difference between France’s total GERD and total GNERD represents the balance of R&D trade between France and other countries, including international organisations (table 27.02). In 2013, funding received from abroad and from international organisations (€3.8 billion) accounted for 8.0% of GERD financing. This was less than that spent by the French government and French businesses abroad (€5.8 billion). The government’s balance of trade with other countries was largely negative (-€1.8 billion), whereas for businesses it was only -€0.1 billion. The key international stakeholders, excluding major industrial groups such as Airbus Group, were the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Union (EU) and the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN).

With 2.24% of GDP dedicated to domestic research in 2013, France did not meet the 3% target set by the EU as part of the Europe 2020 strategy or its own target, as part of the national research strategy (SNR). It ranked 5th among the OECD’s six largest countries in terms of GERD (chart 27.05), behind South Korea (4.1%), Japan (3.5%), Germany (2.9%) and the United States (2.7%), but ahead of the United Kingdom (1.6%), Spain and Italy. Within the EU, it was the countries with medium-sized economies that devoted the largest proportion of their GDP to R&D: Finland (3.3%) and Sweden (3.3%).

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DAVID Catherine. Research and experimental development efforts in France. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 50 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2016. 9th ed. Chapter 27 [Accessed 05/26/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-151572-7. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/EESR9EN_R_27-research_and_experimental_development_efforts_in_france-ILL_05.php

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According to the Frascati manual, drawn up by the OECD, experimental research and development activities (R&D) cover creative work undertaken systematically in order to increase the stock of knowledge for new applications.

In order to measure total R&D expenditure, we can refer either to R&D performance or its funding by two key economic stakeholders: government and businesses. The term ‘government’ is understood here to cover government departments, public research institutions, higher education institutions and not-for-profit organisations. This definition is that used by the OECD.

Two main indicators are used:

gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD), which covers R&D carried out within France (metropolitan France and French overseas departments and territories), regardless of the source of funding;

gross national expenditure on research and development (GNERD), which covers funding from French businesses or government for R&D carried out in France or abroad.

These aggregates are obtained primarily from the results of annual surveys on resources dedicated to R&D by businesses and government. The data on R&D in France come from an annual survey carried out on each institutional sector, which was conducted in 2014 and 2015 for the 2013 financial year.

Changes in expenditure are measured in real terms, i.e. excluding price effects. Variations in R&D expenditure are estimated using the GDP deflator, i.e. the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP. The method for calculating GDP was changed in May 2014 (GDP base year = 2010), (see EESR9EN_Annex_7).

 

Key figures


Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
48,107 M
 
Estimate for 2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: at current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
47,480 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: at current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Gross national expenditure on R&D
49,424 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
R&D effort (GERD as a % of GDP)
2.24%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, Insee
  See more key figures  
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure
30,708 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: at current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural Government R&D expenditure
16,772 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: at current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
R&D effort (GERD as a % of GDP)
2.24%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of Gross domestic expenditure on R&D executed by firms
64%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of Gross domestic expenditure on R&D executed by government
35%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure
30.7 bn
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: Current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural Government R&D expenditure
16.7 bn
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: Current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Gross national expenditure on R&D by business enterprises
29.2 bn
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: Current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Gross national expenditure on R&D by government
20.3 bn
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: Prix courants
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Gross national expenditure on R&D
49.4 bn
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. research and experimental development efforts in France".

Coverage: Current prices
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

27.01 Funding and performance of R&D in France in 2013 1

1 Semi-finalised results

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.02 Funding and performance of R&D in France from 2010 to 2014

 
2010 3 2011 2012 4 2013 5 2014 6
Performance of R&D
GERD at current prices (€M) 43,469 45,112 46,519 47,480 48,107
at 2010 prices (€M) 43,469 44,690 45,557 46,148 46,493
as % of GDP 1 2.18 2.19 2.23 2.24 2.26
BERD as % of GERD 63.2 64.0 64.6 64.7 64.8
GOVERD 2 as % of GERD 36.8 36.0 35.4 35.3 35.2
Funding of R&D
GNERD at current prices (€M) 44,841 46,474 48,537 49,424
at 2010 prices (€M) 44,841 46,039 47,533 48,037
as % of GDP 1 2.24 2.26 2.33 2.34
BERD in % of GERD 57.2 58.9 59.5 59.0
GOVERD 2 as % of GERD 42.8 41.1 40.5 41.0
International R&D trade
Resources (in current €M) 3,279 3,495 3,534 3,808
Expenditure (in current €M) 4,650 4,857 5,552 5,752
Balance (in current €M) -1,372 -1,362 -2,018 -1,943
 

1 GDP in June 2014, change of methodology and 2010 as base year.
2 State and not-for-profit institutions (government, higher education and private non-profit sector).
3 Change of methodology.
4 Final results.
5 Semi-finalised results.
6 Estimates.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.03 Changes in the ratio of domestic expenditure on R&D to GDP (1981-2014)

GERD/GDP ratio
Changes in GDP in real terms
Changes in GERD in real terms
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.04 Changes in business and government GERD and GNERD (in €M at 2010 prices) (1981-2014)

  
BERD
GOVERD
GNERD Business
GNERD Administration
 
 

Break in series in 1999.
r Change of methodology, revised data.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.05 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as a percentage of GDP in the main OECD countries in 2013 1

IL
 
JP
SE
US 3
OECD 2
FR 4
NL
CA
IT
 
 
KR
FI
TW
DE
CN
EU28 2
GB
RU
 
ES
  
BERD/GDP
GOVERD/GDP
 
 

1 The European System of Accounts (ESA 2008) now recommends that funds spent by economic agents on R&D should be counted as investments, whereas they were previously categorised as intermediate consumption. As a result, countries that adopted this standard have had to significantly revise their level of GDP upwards for the entire period. In this graph, only data for Japan have not been revised.
2 Estimate.
3 Excluding (all or part of) capital expenditure
4 GDP revised in June 2014, base year = 2010.

 

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Related statistical publications

 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 14 - Panorama de l'effort de R&D dans le monde - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé - November 2016
Les données sont issues de la base de données « Principaux indicateurs de la science et de la technologie » de l’OCDE. Les comparaisons quantitatives doivent rester prudentes en raison de problèmes de mesurabilité : correction des différences de niveaux de prix entre les pays, respect des recommandations des manuels de références de l’OCDE et des consignes établies par Eurostat. En outre, le Japon, la Russie et la Chine n’ont pas adopté le nouveau système de comptes nationaux qui, depuis 2014, inclut les dépenses de R&D dans le PIB.
 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 11 - Les dépenses intérieures de R&D en 2014 - Christophe Dixte, Anna Testas - September 2016
En 2014, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement (DIRD) s’établit à 47,9 milliards d’euros (Md€), soit une hausse de 0,6 Md€ par rapport à 2013. Corrigée de l’évolution des prix, la DIRD a progressé de 0,6 % en 2014. La DIRD des entreprises est en hausse de 1,2 % en volume, tandis que celle des administrations baisse de 0,4 %. L’effort de recherche, qui rapporte la DIRD au produit intérieur brut (PIB), se maintient à 2,24 % en 2014. Il a augmenté de 0,22 point depuis 2007.

En 2015, l’évolution de la DIRD devrait accélérer (+0,9 % en volume, après +0,6 % en 2014). La DIRD atteindrait 48,6 Md€. D’une part, la DIRD des entreprises maintiendrait son rythme de progression et augmenterait de 1,1 % en volume, pour atteindre 31,7 Md€. D’autre part, la DIRD des administrations augmenterait de 0,5 % en volume, et s’élèverait à 17,0 Md€. La hausse de la DIRD serait moins élevée que celle du PIB (+1,3 %). Ainsi, l’effort de recherche diminuerait légèrement, de 2,24 % à 2,23 %.
 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 03 - BERD up by 2.3% in 2014 - Florian Lezec - March 2016
In 2014, according to the provisional data, gross domestic expenditure on research and development by business enterprises established in France (BERD) amounted to €31.5 billion. When corrected by inflation, BERD was particularly dynamic, with an increase of 2.3% in one year. It increased at a faster rate than in 2013 when it experienced a slowdown (+1.4% in 2013 after +2.9% in 2012 and +4.1% in 2011). Against a background of virtual stability in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), business research effort, which is the ratio of GERD to GDP, increased again to reach 1.48% in 2014, compared to 1.45% in 2013.
 Note d'information SIES 15.09 - Research and development expenditure in France in 2013 - Christophe Dixte, Anna Testas - December 2015
In 2013, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) was €47.5 billion, up by 1.3% in real terms compared with 2012. The increase in GERD is due to an increase in business enterprise (+1.4%) and goverment expenditure on R&D (+1.0%). In 2013, R&D activities by businesses and government employed 418,000 people at full-time equivalent. The nation's research effort, which is the ration of GERD to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 2.24% in 2013. It should increase slightly in 2014 to reach 2.26%. GERD should increase by 0.7% in real terms in 2014 (estimate), at a higher rate than GDP (+0.2%).

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
26 - Research and experimental development efforts in France - Catherine David
Gross domestic expenditures on experimental research and development (GERD) has grown at an average annual rate of 1.6% over the past 15 years. This growth was driven mainly by the dynamism of domestic R&D spending by enterprises (1.9% on average annually). GERD accounts for 2.24% of GDP in 2014, or 47.9 billion euros. The companies carry out 65% of the R&D work carried out on the national territory and finance 61% of the national R&D expenditure [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
26 - research and development efforts in France - Catherine David
France’s gross domestic expenditure on research and development has doubled since 1982 and accounted for 2.23% of GDP (€46.5 billion) in 2012. Businesses alone implemented 65% of R&D expenditure and funded 59% of gross national expenditure on R&D [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°9 - Juin 2016
27 - l'effort de recherche et développement en France - Catherine David
Multipliée par 2 depuis 1983, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement expérimental (DIRD) représente 2,24 % du PIB en 2013, soit 47,5 milliards d’euros. L’effort de recherche provient surtout des entreprises qui exécutent 65 % des travaux de R&D réalisés sur le territoire national et financent 59 % de la dépense nationale de R&D [Consult the following page in french]


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