Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
OECD.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

The data come from surveys carried out by the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) in the Sub-department of Information systems and Statistical studies (SIES), firstly on businesses (private or public) and secondly on government departments.

The business survey was conducted on around 11,000 businesses performing R&D in French territory.

The survey was exhaustive for businesses with domestic expenditure on R&D of more than €0.4m and sampled for the others.

Several methodological changes were made to the survey of institutions that fall within the ‘government’ institutional sector in 2010. As a result, R&D carried out by government departments and certain dedicated State research institutions was assessed using a new method that made it possible to distinguish their funding activities more effectively. This resulted in the estimate for GOVERD being revised downwards by around €1 billion (including €850 million for Defence).

The five institutional sectors used for the purposes of international statistics are: government (including defence), higher education, private non-profit, business enterprise (State-owned and private) and abroad (including international organisations).

The ‘government’, ‘higher education’ and ‘private non-profit’ sectors all fall under the heading of ‘government’ or ‘public sector’. This sector also includes EPSTs, EPICs, public administrative bodies (EPA) and government departments (including Defence). The ‘higher education’ institutional sector is made up of higher education institutions (universities and Grandes Écoles), university hospitals and French Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CLCC). The CNRS is deemed to be part of the higher education sector for the purposes of comparing France with other countries.

Within the ‘business enterprise’ institutional sector, GERD is broken down into one or more economic activity branches that benefit from R&D. These 32 branches are taken from the 2008 version of the French classification of activities (NAF rev.2).

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27 gross domestic expenditure on research and development

In 2014, half of intramural business expenditure on R&D (BERD) was focused on six industrial branches (‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’, ‘Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’, ‘Computer-related and information service activities’, ‘Professional, scientific and technical activities’ and ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’). In the public sector, dedicated research institutions (EPST and EPIC) carried out 54% of all R&D funded by intramural government expenditure (GOVERD).

In 2014, intramural business expenditure on research and development (BERD) totalled €31.1 billion, while government expenditure (GOVERD) was €16.8 billion. GERD increased by 0.6% in volume compared to the previous year, reflecting an increase in business research and development (BERD) spending (+1.2%), but is moderated by a decrease gf government spending (-0.4%) (table 27.01). By 2015, growth in GERD could reach +0.9% in volume, thanks to a continuation of the pace of growth in business spending, accompanied by a slight increase in those of the administrations.

The breakdown of BERD among the main fields of research reveals a marked concentration (table 27.02). Six of the 32 research areas receive half of France’s R&D resources: ‘manufacture of motor vehicles’ (14% of BERD); ‘manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’ (11%); ‘manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’ (10%); ‘specialised scientific and technical activities’ and ‘computer-related and information service activities’, each 7%; and ‘manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’ (6%). Since 2007, the ‘manufacture of motor vehicles’ field has become more dominant, primarily to the detriment of ‘manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’. In 2015, it recorded the same level of expenditure as in 2008. 'Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’ has been very dynamic since 2011. By contrast, expenditure on the pharmaceutical industry has fallen since 2008.

Taken as a whole, research fields within the service sector received 21% of BERD (€6.6 billion). In the past 3 years, R&D expenditure within the service sector has shown significant growth, increasing by 5.9% a year on average in real terms, in comparison to a growth of 0.7% in volume per year for the manufacturing industries. For the 'primary, energy, construction' sector, the average annual development of +1.6% is double that for the industrial manufacturing sector.

In 2014, 65.0% of businesses in France carried out R&D, placing France ahead of the United Kingdom (64.4%) but far behind South Korea (78.2%), Japan (77.8%), the United States (70.6%) and Germany (67.5%) (chart 27.03). However, it should be noted when making comparisons with other countries that R&D by French businesses does not cover the country’s entire technological and industrial field. A considerable proportion of high-level technological R&D is carried out by dedicated State research institutions and foundations.

Public research is carried out by dedicated research institutions (accounting for 54% of GOVERD in 2014), higher education institutions (40%), the private non-profit sector (4%) and government departments and other State institutions (1%) (chart 27.04). In 2014, State-owned scientific and technological establishments (EPST), of which there are eight, carried out 32% of government-funded R&D. They varied widely in size, from the multidisciplinary National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), which conducted 19% of government-funded R&D, to the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), both of which accounted for 5% of GOVERD. State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC), of which there are twelve, were responsible for 22% of government-funded R&D. R&D was also highly concentrated among EPICs, with 14% of GOVERD going to the civil division of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and 3% to the French Government Space Agency (CNES), with the remaining EPICs accounting for 5% of GOVERD. Between 2013 and 2014, GERD fell in real terms among EPICs (-2.1%), in the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) (-0.9%) and in higher education institutions (-0.1%). However, R&D expenditure increased in real terms in the other EPSTs (+0.4%), and in the not-for-profit sector (+5.3%).

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DAVID Catherine. Gross domestic expenditure on research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 27 [Accessed 07/20/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_R_27-gross_domestic_expenditure_on_research_and_development-ILL_04.php

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The data come from surveys carried out by the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) in the Sub-department of Information systems and Statistical studies (SIES), firstly on businesses (private or public) and secondly on government departments.

The business survey was conducted on around 11,000 businesses performing R&D in French territory.

The survey was exhaustive for businesses with domestic expenditure on R&D of more than €0.4m and sampled for the others.

Several methodological changes were made to the survey of institutions that fall within the ‘government’ institutional sector in 2010. As a result, R&D carried out by government departments and certain dedicated State research institutions was assessed using a new method that made it possible to distinguish their funding activities more effectively. This resulted in the estimate for GOVERD being revised downwards by around €1 billion (including €850 million for Defence).

The five institutional sectors used for the purposes of international statistics are: government (including defence), higher education, private non-profit, business enterprise (State-owned and private) and abroad (including international organisations).

The ‘government’, ‘higher education’ and ‘private non-profit’ sectors all fall under the heading of ‘government’ or ‘public sector’. This sector also includes EPSTs, EPICs, public administrative bodies (EPA) and government departments (including Defence). The ‘higher education’ institutional sector is made up of higher education institutions (universities and Grandes Écoles), university hospitals and French Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CLCC). The CNRS is deemed to be part of the higher education sector for the purposes of comparing France with other countries.

Within the ‘business enterprise’ institutional sector, GERD is broken down into one or more economic activity branches that benefit from R&D. These 32 branches are taken from the 2008 version of the French classification of activities (NAF rev.2).

 

Key figures


Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Information technology and computer service activities
2,103 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Specialist scientific and technical activities
2,067 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
-1.2%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Telecommunications
921 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of Information technology and computer service activities
4th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
1,086 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Automobile industry
-3.1%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Aeronautics and space construction
+6.0%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Pharmaceutical industry
-2%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Chemical industry
+4.2%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
9th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Telecommunications
13th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
+3.9%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Specialist scientific and technical activities
+8.9%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Manufacture of electrical equipment
+3.5%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Information technology and computer service activities
+22.6%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of the Chemical industry
6th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Specialist scientific and technical activities
5th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
+5.2%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Automobile industry
1st
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of Aeronautics and space construction
2nd
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Telecommunications
+7.6%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Manufacture of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
10th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
8th
 research branch
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Aeronautics and space construction
3,509 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
7th
 research branch
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of electrical equipment
1,020 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ranking of the Pharmaceutical industry
3rd
 research branch
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Ranking of the Manufacture of electrical equipment
11th
 research branch
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the branch
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in services branches
21%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Chemical industry
1,788 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
1,081 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in the 6 main research branches
54%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: Automobile industry, Aeronautics and space construction, Pharmaceutical industry, Information technology and computer service activities, Specialist scientific and technical activities, Chemical industry
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in industrial branches
74%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Variation in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Manufacturers of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
+5.2%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Change in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in industrial branches
+0.7%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Change in intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed in the services branches
+5.9%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
1,405 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Pharmaceutical industry
3,027 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
1,627 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See one more key figure  
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in the Automobile industry
4,390 M
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "27. gross domestic expenditure on research and development".

Coverage: branch benefitting from research
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

27.01 Performance of R&D in France by businesses and the public sector

 
2011 2012 2013 3 2014 4 2015 5
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D
at current prices (in €M) 45,112 46,519 47,362 47,919 48,643
at 2010 prices (€M) 44,690 45,557 46,025 46,321 46,724
annual growth rate in real terms 1 (%) 2.8 1.9 1.0 0.6 0.9
Intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure
at current prices (in €M) 28,851 30,041 30,590 31,133 31,668
at 2010 prices (€M) 28,581 29,420 29,726 30,095 30,418
annual growth rate in real terms 1 (%) 4.1 2.9 1.0 1.2 1.1
Intramural Government R&D expenditure 2
at current prices (in €M) 16,261 16,478 16,772 16,786 16,975
at 2010 prices (€M) 16,109 16,137 16,299 16,226 16,305
annual growth rate in real terms 1 (%) 0.6 0.2 1.0 -0.4 0.5
 

1 Evaluated on the basis of the price change for GDP as revised in 2014 (base year = 2010).
2 Government, higher education and the non-profit sector.
3 Final results.
4 Semi-finalised results.
5 Estimates.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.02 Breakdown of BERD by branch 1 using the research in 2014 (in €M)

 
BERD 2014 Average annual change in real terms over the last 3 years 2011-2014 (%)
Amount (€M) 2 Breakdown by branch (%)
Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D -  Industrial branches 2 23,066 74 +0.7
Manufacture of motor vehicles 4,390 14 -3.1
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery 3,503 11 +6.0
Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations 3,027 10 -2.0
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products 1,788 6 +4.2
Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation; watches and clocks 1,627 5 +5.2
Manufacture of electronic components and boards, computers and peripheral equipment 1,405 5 -1.2
Manufacture of machinery and equipment n.e.c. 1,081 3 +1.0
Manufacture of electrical equipment 1,027 3 +1.4
Manufacture of communication equipment 975 3 -0.9
Other industrial branches 4,242 14 +0.7
Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D - Service branches 2 6,617 21 +5.9
Computer-related and information service activities 2,103 6.8 +3.3
Professional, scientific and technical activities 2,067 6.6 +10.5
Telecommunications 921 3 +3.6
Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting activities 1,086 3 +5.8
Other service branches 439 1 +3.5
Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D - Primary, energy, construction 1,450 5 +1.6
Intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D - Total 31,133 100 +1.7
Extramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D 12,719 +13.8
 

1 Since 2008, the branches that benefit from R&D have been defined using the second edition of the French classification of activities (NAF Rev. 2).
2 See Annex.
3 Semi-finalised results.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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27.03 Proportion of GERD implemented by businesses and governments in the OECD in 2014 (%)

IL 3
 
JP
OECD
DE
FR
EU28
IT
 
CA
 
KR
US 2
FI
SE
GB
NL
ES
 
  
Businesses
Government 1
 
 

1 Government, higher education and the private-non-profit sector.
2 Excluding (all or part of) capital expenditure.
3 Excluding (all or most) defence.

📄 Source:OECD

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27.04 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D by institutions carrying out public research in 2014 (€M)

Private non-profit sector
Higher education and research institutions
CNRS
EPSTs (excluding the CNRS)
EPICs
Government departments and other state institutions
Excluding EPST
EPST
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Related statistical publication

 Note d'information SIES 16.12 - Dépenses de recherche et développement en France - Résultats détaillés pour 2014 et premières estimations pour 2015 - Philippe Roussel, Camille Schweitzer - December 2016
En 2014, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement (DIRD) s’établit à 47,9 milliards d’euros (Md€), en hausse de 0,6 % en volume par rapport à 2013. L’augmentation de la DIRD résulte de la progression des dépenses de recherche et développement (R&D) des entreprises (+ 1,2 %), mais est modérée par une légère diminution des dépenses des administrations (- 0,4 %). Les activités de R&D dans les entreprises et les administrations mobilisent 417 200 personnes, en équivalent temps plein. L’effort de recherche de la nation, mesuré en rapportant la DIRD au produit intérieur brut (PIB), se maintient à 2,24 % en 2014. Il pourrait légèrement diminuer en 2015, pour atteindre 2,23 %. En effet, l’évolution de la DIRD devrait accélérer (+ 0,9 % en volume, estimation) grâce à la progression de la DIRD des entreprises et des administrations, mais moins rapidement que le PIB (+ 1,3 %).


Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
28 - gross domestic expenditure on research and development - Catherine David
In 2013, half of intramural business expenditure on R&D (BERD) was focused on six industrial branches (‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’, ‘Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’, ‘Computer-related and information service activities’, ‘Professional, scientific and technical activities’ and ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’). In the public sector, dedicated research institutions (EPST and EPIC) carried out 54% of all R&D funded by intramural government expenditure (GOVERD) [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
27 - gross domestic expenditure on research and development - Catherine David
In 2012, half of intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD) was focused on six of the 32 industrial branches that benefit from R&D (‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’, ‘Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations’, ‘Computer-related and information service activities’, ‘Professional, scientific and technical activities’ and ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’). In the public sector, dedicated research institutions (EPST and EPIC) carried out 55% of all R&D funded by intramural government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°10 - Avril 2017
27 - les dépenses intérieures de recherche et développement - Catherine David
En 2014, six branches de recherche (automobile, aéronautique, pharmacie, activités spécialisées, scientifiques et techniques, activités informatiques et services d’information et chimie) exécutent la moitié de la dépense intérieure de R&D des entreprises. Dans le secteur public, les organismes de recherche (EPST, EPIC) exécutent 54 % de la dépense intérieure de R&D des administrations [Consult the following page in french]


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