Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM), Metropolitan France for the panels.

The data in table 09.01 and chart 09.02 relate to enrolments of new baccalauréat holders in higher education (excluding work study programmes), just after passing their baccalauréat: as a single student can enrol in several courses, access rates by branch are not additive (total greater than 100%). The majority of dual enrolments are in CPGE-university.

University: this includes students in University Centres for Education and Research (Centre universitaire de formation et de recherche - CUFR) and those at the University of Lorraine (which became a major institution in 2011) where, for the most part, the courses offered resemble university courses.

'Other courses' represents engineering schools and engineering courses in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounting, notaries, architecture, various specialities), in the major institutions, schools of art, private faculties, paramedical schools (2012-2013 data) and social care courses (2012-2013 data).

table 09.03 is based on a panel formed by selecting a sample of 12,000 baccalauréat holders who attended school in 2007-2008 in metropolitan France.

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09 access to higher education

This page has been updated. Read 10. access to higher education in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

About 75% of baccalauréat holders from 2013 enrolled immediately in a higher education course (excluding work study programmes). More than half of those with a general baccalauréat enrolled at university but their numbers were down almost 7 percentage points compared with 2000. Almost one in two holders of a technological baccalauréat enrolled in a short vocational course. More and more of those with a vocational baccalauréat, whose numbers have increased substantially with the reform of the professional path, enrolled in higher education.

Of the 589,410 young people who obtained the general, technological or vocational baccalauréat in metropolitan France and the Overseas departments (Département d'outre-mer - DOM) in 2013, 75% enrolled in a higher education course in the following academic year (excluding work study programmes), which was 3.4 points higher than in 2012 (table 09.01). The considerable drop in the number of vocational baccalauréat holders at the 2013 session (-16.6%), who are always less likely to go on to higher education than the other baccalauréat holders, automatically leads to a rise in the average enrolment rate. Virtually all general baccalauréat holders enrol immediately in higher education but this is not the case for those with the technological baccalauréat. Their enrolment rate was 74.1% in 2013, a drop of 2.3 points on the previous year. The share of vocational baccalauréat holders who embark immediately on higher education has been increasing for the last 13 years and has settled at 33%. These rates do not take into account enrolments in the Advanced technician's section (Section de technicien supérieur - STS) in the context of an apprenticeship, nor for continuing studies with a professionalisation contract or in higher education abroad.

University remains the preferred branch for those with the general baccalauréat. However, even though the start of the 2013-2014 academic year saw a renewed surge of interest in universities, they still attract fewer students than 13 years ago. Only 65% enrolled in 2013, compared with 73% in 2000 (see 'Methodology' section) (chart 09.02). At the start of the 2013-2014 academic year, 18.3% of general baccalauréat holders moved into short vocational courses (University technology institute (Institut universitaire de technologie - IUT), STS) (down one point compared with 2012) while 12.5% went into classes preparing for admission to Grandes Ecoles (Classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles - CPGE). Those from the scientific series of baccalauréat stand out as they went on to a wide variety of options. 64.7% moved into a branch of study at university (including 11.8% in IUT), 18.1% enrolled in CPGE and 12.9% in other courses, especially preparation for admission to engineering schools.

36.2% of technological baccalauréat holders moved into the STS branch, which is the most popular of all higher education courses for these students wishing to continue their studies. However, this proportion is slowly declining (-4.6 points compared with the previous year). In contrast, the proportion of technological baccalauréat holders moving into IUTs is increasing and stands at 11% (or +1.4%). This route is rare, nevertheless, compared with the numbers choosing an STS (36.2% of technological baccalauréat holders) or even a general subject at university (19.8 %, up by +1.1 points compared with the previous year).

More than one in two vocational baccalauréat holders who are working in an apprenticeship choose to stop studying after passing the exam (table 09.03). When these students do continue into higher education, they almost all choose a work study programme. On the other hand, those with a vocational baccalauréat obtained as school pupils are more likely to move into higher education (50% compared with 36% of those who have done an apprenticeship), with only one third choosing the work study option.

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 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM), Metropolitan France for the panels.

How to cite this paper :

FAUVET Laurent, PÉAN Sylvaine. Access to higher education. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 09, 28-29 [Accessed 06/27/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_ES_09-access_to_higher_education.php

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The data in table 09.01 and chart 09.02 relate to enrolments of new baccalauréat holders in higher education (excluding work study programmes), just after passing their baccalauréat: as a single student can enrol in several courses, access rates by branch are not additive (total greater than 100%). The majority of dual enrolments are in CPGE-university.

University: this includes students in University Centres for Education and Research (Centre universitaire de formation et de recherche - CUFR) and those at the University of Lorraine (which became a major institution in 2011) where, for the most part, the courses offered resemble university courses.

'Other courses' represents engineering schools and engineering courses in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounting, notaries, architecture, various specialities), in the major institutions, schools of art, private faculties, paramedical schools (2012-2013 data) and social care courses (2012-2013 data).

table 09.03 is based on a panel formed by selecting a sample of 12,000 baccalauréat holders who attended school in 2007-2008 in metropolitan France.

 

Key figures


Share of technological baccalauréat holders from the 2013 session enrolling in Technological university institutes (IUT)
11%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders from the 2013 session enrolling in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
36.2%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders from the 2013 session enrolling at university
65.2%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders from the 2013 session enrolling in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
12.5%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of technological baccalauréat holders from the 2013 session enrolling in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
1.7%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Rate of immediate enrolment by baccalauréat holders from the 2013 session
75.4%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
29.5%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
48.4%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
13.2%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
27.3%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
13.8%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
15.7%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
6.5%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
21.9%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
16.2%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
16.6%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
10.1%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
16.1%
 
2013-14
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of baccalauréat holders from 2013 enrolling in higher education immediately after passing the exam
75%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "09. access to higher education".

Coverage: excluding alternance programme
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

09.01 Change in enrolment rates in higher education 1 (%)

 
2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
General bac
University 73.0 71.7 69.3 66.3 64.6 64.6 65.5 64.6 64.1 65.2
of which IUT 11.2 10.4 10.5 10.7 11.0 10.8 10.7 10.7 10.6 10.2
CPGE 12.6 13.3 13.2 13.3 13.8 13.3 13.2 13.2 13.0 12.5
STS 9.0 7.7 7.8 8.3 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.6 8.1
Other courses 9.1 11.1 10.8 11.4 12.3 12.2 12.3 12.3 12.5 12.2
of which Science bac
University 71.7 70.9 68.5 66.2 63.6 63.6 64.5 63.8 63.2 64.7
of which IUT 14.6 13.2 12.9 13.1 13.0 12.7 12.5 12.5 12.4 11.8
CPGE 19.1 20.0 19.2 20.0 20.1 19.5 19.3 19.3 19.1 18.1
STS 7.0 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.0
Other courses 10.1 11.4 10.7 11.8 12.8 12.5 12.6 12.7 13.3 12.9
Technological bac
University 28.2 28.5 27.3 25.3 25.5 28.1 28.5 28.2 28.3 30.8
of which IUT 9.1 10.4 9.9 9.5 9.8 10.1 9.9 9.6 9.6 11.0
CPGE 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.7
STS 44.5 44.0 42.5 42.3 43.1 44.0 42.7 42.0 40.8 36.2
Other courses 3.9 5.0 5.0 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.1 5.2 5.6 5.4
of which STI2D bac 2
University 23.5 26.7 25.8 23.2 23.7 25.5 26.2 26.7 26.7 36.7
of which IUT 16.2 18.5 17.9 16.5 17.5 17.9 17.6 17.7 17.2 24.4
CPGE 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.8
STS 60.5 59.8 57.9 56.3 58.9 59.3 56.6 55.6 51.8 44.7
Other courses 2.3 2.5 2.8 2.8 3.8 4.1 3.7 4.0 4.7 5.6
General and technological combined
University 56.9 56.9 55.3 52.9 51.9 53.1 53.5 53.2 53.4 55.2
of which IUT 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.4 10.6 10.6 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.4
CPGE 8.4 9.1 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.4
STS 21.8 20.1 19.3 19.4 20.1 19.9 19.8 19.1 18.3 16.2
Other courses 7.2 9.0 8.9 9.4 10.1 10.1 10.0 10.1 10.4 10.3
Vocational bac
University 6.9 6.7 6.5 5.7 5.4 7.7 7.7 9.0 8.8 8.6
of which IUT 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8
CPGE 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
STS 9.7 15.7 15.5 15.6 17.4 17.7 18.4 18.8 19.3 23.8
Other courses 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
All baccalauréats combined
University 47.9 47.8 45.9 43.4 42.6 43.0 43.3 41.1 39.4 42.6
of which IUT 8.7 8.7 8.4 8.4 8.6 8.4 8.3 7.7 7.3 7.8
CPGE 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.8 7.5 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.9
STS 19.6 19.3 18.6 18.7 19.6 19.4 19.5 19.1 18.6 18.3
Other courses 6.0 7.5 7.3 7.6 8.2 8.0 7.9 7.5 7.4 7.6
 

1 See definitions opposite.
2 formerly STI.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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09.02 Rate of immediate enrolment by 2013 baccalauréat holders in the different higher education study tracks (%)

All combined
General bac
of which Science bac
Technological bac
of which bac STI2D
Vocational bac
  
University excl. IUT
IUT
CPGE
STS
Other courses
 
 

The same student can enrol for several study tracks. Rates of access by study track are therefore not additive (total greater than 100%).

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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09.03 Continuing studies by holders of vocational baccalauréats according to whether they followed an apprenticeship in their final year (%)

 
Pupils in final year Apprentices in final year All vocational baccalauréat holders
Bachelor's degree 5 1 5
STS 41 33 39
school path 25 1 20
with apprenticeship contract 8 26 11
with professionalisation contract 8 6 8
Other higher ed. courses 4 2 3
All continuing into higher education 50 36 47
school path 33 2 27
work/study 17 34 20
Non-higher education courses 7 10 8
Not continuing studies 43 54 45
breakdown of vocational bac holders by origin 82 18 100

 
 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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Related statistical publications

 Repères et références statistiques sur les enseignements, la formation et la recherche - RERS - RERS - 2014 - Les étudiants - 2014
Les effectifs des étudiants des universités et des écoles d’enseignement supérieur (écoles de commerce, écoles d’ingénieur, etc.) sont présentés selon leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques et leur répartition territoriale. La scolarisation des jeunes femmes dans l'enseignement supérieur fait l'objet d'une étude spécifique. La connaissance des filières et des flux est complétée d’une étude sur le devenir des bacheliers saisi au travers d’un panel.
 Note d'information SIES 12.04 - Professional baccalauréat holders in higher education - Sylvaine Péan - June 2012
The reform of the vocational study route substantially increased the numbers of vocational baccalauréat holders. Although the aim of this baccalauréat is first and foremost to prepare young people for immediate occupational integration, the number of students moving on to higher education is also increasing, both under school status and through alternance programmes. 42% of those passing their baccalauréat continue their studies. The vast majority enrol in Advanced technician’s sections (Sections de techniciens supérieurs - STS) where results are mixed, with almost half obtaining their diploma. When they enrol in the general study tracks in universities, very few obtain their Bachelor's degree. A quarter of them quit their studies one year after enrolling in the first year of a Bachelor's degree course.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
10 - access to higher education - Aline Pauron
70.1% of general baccalauréat holders enrolled at university, i.e. three points less than in 2000. More than one in two technological baccalauréat holders enrolled in a short vocational course (STS or IUT). STS were the preferred course for vocational baccalauréat holders, as 27.8% enrolled in them, i.e. 2.4 points more than in 2014. This year saw a marked rise in dual CPGE-university enrolments. Comparisons could therefore not be made between 2015 and previous years in terms of university entrance [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
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Around 75% of Baccalaureate holders in 2014 immediately enrolled in higher education. Nearly two-thirds of general Bac holders enrolled at university, 7 points less than in 2000 but 2.7 points more than in 2012. Around one in two technological Bac holders enrolled on a short vocational course. More and more of those with a vocational Baccalaureate, whose numbers have increased substantially since the reform of the vocational path, enrolled in higher education [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
09 - l’accès à l’enseignement supérieur - Laurent Fauvet & Sylvaine Péan
Environ 75 % des bacheliers 2013 s’inscrivent immédiatement dans l’enseignement supérieur (hors alternance). Plus de la moitié des bacheliers généraux s’inscrivent à l’université mais c’est près de 7 points de moins qu’en 2000. Près d’un bachelier technologique sur deux s’inscrit dans une filière professionnelle courte. Les bacheliers professionnels, dont les effectifs ont considérablement augmenté avec la réforme de la voie professionnelle, sont de plus en plus nombreux à s’inscrire dans l’enseignement supérieur [Consult the following page in french]


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