Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:Céreq.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France or Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM), depending on type of data.

The data presented here are taken from the Generation 2010 survey conducted by the Centre for Study and Research in Training and Education Policy (Centre d’études et de recherches sur les qualifications – Céreq) in spring 2013. 33,500 young people, representing the 708,000 young people who left the education system in 2010, were surveyed. The Céreq conducts these Generation surveys every three years, gathering data from sample groups of those leaving the education system to study how they integrate into working life for the first time and their professional progress during their first three years on the labour market.

The survey covered all those who left the education system for the first time in 2010, were aged under 35 and were French or foreign nationals who had been enrolled at an educational institution in metropolitan France or – for the first time – a French overseas department during the 2009-2010 academic year. Young people who had interrupted their studies for a period of one year or more (with the exception of those who did so for health reasons) and those who returned to studying within a year of entering the labour market were not included in the survey.

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22 early career experience of young people leaving higher education

This page has been updated. Read 24. the first five years' career experience of young people leaving higher education in 2010 in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016

Nearly 25% of young people who left higher education in 2010 without obtaining a qualification were unemployed in 2013, as compared with 13% of all those who left at the same time. Occupational integration conditions on the labour market remained better for graduates with vocational qualifications than for those with non-vocational qualifications of an equivalent level.

In 2013, occupational integration conditions for young people who left higher education in 2010 varied widely depending on the level of education they had achieved, as well as the course and specialism they had studied. The ongoing repercussions of the economic crisis, in particular on the rate of unemployment, tended to magnify the initial differences recorded for previous generations between those with different levels of education. It was largely those without any qualifications and those with the lowest levels of qualification who were hit hardest by the worsening economic situation.

Those who left higher education without obtaining a qualification were the first to feel the effects. The rate of unemployment for this group increased sharply compared to that for the 2004 Generation, to such an extent that around one in four young people who were able to work were still unemployed three years after entering the labour market.

At Bac + 2 level (marking the successful conclusion of two years of higher education following the baccalauréat), the rate of unemployment varied between different types of qualification, ranging from 14% for those with higher technical certificates (Brevet de technicien supérieur – BTS) to 17% for those with university technology diplomas (Diplôme universitaire de technologie – DUT) (chart 22.01), but above all between different specialisms. Despite the economic crisis, those with specialist industrial qualifications enjoyed greater success on the labour market, benefiting from a lower rate of unemployment and better working conditions. Their level of employment was higher on average than that of those with specialist service sector qualifications, as were levels of pay.

At Bachelor’s degree (Licence) level, graduates with vocational qualifications benefited from better occupational integration conditions than their counterparts with general qualifications. They were less affected by unemployment (10% as opposed to 14%), better paid and on average held more stable and more highly skilled jobs (chart 22.02, chart 22.03, chart 22.04). However, in terms of the rate of unemployment, graduates with general scientific Bachelor's degrees more than held their own against their counterparts with vocational Bachelor’s degrees (Licences professionnelles – LP). The rate of unemployment remained marginal among those with a Bac + 2 or Bac + 3-level qualification in health and social care (2%), who were shielded from the effects of the uncertain economic climate by the regulatory nature of their target jobs.

At Master’s degree level, three years after graduates had left the education system the rate of unemployment ranged from 3% for those from engineering schools to 12% for those who had successfully completely a two-year Master’s degree. The rate of unemployment for graduates holding a Master’s degree awarded by a university varied from 10% for scientific specialisms to 16% for arts, humanities, languages and human sciences. Although at the time of the survey it was shown that having a Master’s degree rather than just a Bachelor's degree gave graduates an advantage in terms of employment conditions, this was not true of the rate of unemployment once the subjects studied by Master’s graduates became ‘less specialist’. When comparing equivalent specialisms, only graduates with Master’s degrees in law, economics and management enjoyed a lower rate of unemployment than that of their counterparts with general Bachelor's degrees.

After three years of working life and despite the economic crisis, the rate of unemployment among graduates with PhDs has not worsened. It was 6% in 2013, but varied from 2% for doctors of medicine to 10% for graduates with PhDs in the arts, humanities, languages and human sciences. Although the rate of stable employment among PhD graduates was lower than the average for those leaving higher education due to the unique nature of careers in research, their employment conditions were the best of the entire Generation, both in terms of their level of employment (96% were in managerial posts) and of pay (with a median monthly salary of €2,430).

Graduates who left higher education in 2010 with a vocational qualification were better paid than their counterparts with general qualifications of an equivalent level. In terms of specialisms, there was a higher level of pay among graduates of vocational courses in industry (such as BTSs, DUTs and LPs). Conversely, arts, humanities, languages and human sciences graduates at all levels were paid less than their counterparts with qualifications of an equivalent level in the sciences or in law, economics and management. This pay gap tended to widen as the level of education became higher (chart 22.05).

📄 Sources:Céreq.
 Coverage:Metropolitan France or Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM), depending on type of data.

How to cite this paper :

MÉNARD Boris. Early career experience of young people leaving higher education. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 22, 54-55 [Accessed 10/18/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_ES_22-early_career_experience_of_young_people_leaving_higher_education.php

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The data presented here are taken from the Generation 2010 survey conducted by the Centre for Study and Research in Training and Education Policy (Centre d’études et de recherches sur les qualifications – Céreq) in spring 2013. 33,500 young people, representing the 708,000 young people who left the education system in 2010, were surveyed. The Céreq conducts these Generation surveys every three years, gathering data from sample groups of those leaving the education system to study how they integrate into working life for the first time and their professional progress during their first three years on the labour market.

The survey covered all those who left the education system for the first time in 2010, were aged under 35 and were French or foreign nationals who had been enrolled at an educational institution in metropolitan France or – for the first time – a French overseas department during the 2009-2010 academic year. Young people who had interrupted their studies for a period of one year or more (with the exception of those who did so for health reasons) and those who returned to studying within a year of entering the labour market were not included in the survey.

 

Key figures


Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with a PhD
6%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "22. early career experience of young people leaving higher education".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with a business school diploma
9%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "22. early career experience of young people leaving higher education".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with an engineering school diploma
3%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "22. early career experience of young people leaving higher education".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with no diploma
25%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "22. early career experience of young people leaving higher education".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
  See one more key figure  
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher eduation
13%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "22. early career experience of young people leaving higher education".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq

22.01 Rate of unemployment in 2013 among young people who left the education system in 2010, by type of qualification (%)

Total
PhD
Engineering school
Business school
Second year of a Master's degree
First year of a Master's degree
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale)
Vocational Bachelor's degree (Licence professionnelle)
Bac + 2/ + 3-level Health and social care
Other Bac + 2-level qualifications
University technology diploma (DUT)
Higher technical certificate (BTS)
Those who left other Bac + 2-level courses without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a BTS/DUT without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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22.02 Rate of permanent employment in 2013 among young people who left the education system in 2010, by type of qualification (%)

Total
PhD
Engineering school
Business school
Second year of a Master's degree
First year of a Master's degree
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale)
Vocational Bachelor's degree (Licence professionnelle)
Bac + 2/ + 3-level Health and social care
Other Bac + 2-level qualifications
University technology diploma (DUT)
Higher technical certificate (BTS)
Those who left other Bac + 2-level courses without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a BTS/DUT without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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22.03 Rate of part-time employment in 2013 among young people who left the education system in 2010, by type of qualification (%)

Total
PhD
Engineering school
Business school
Second year of a Master's degree
First year of a Master's degree
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale)
Vocational Bachelor's degree (Licence professionnelle)
Bac + 2/ + 3-level Health and social care
Other Bac + 2-level qualifications
University technology diploma (DUT)
Higher technical certificate (BTS)
Those who left other Bac + 2-level courses without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a BTS/DUT without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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22.04 Proportion of young people who left the education system in 2010 working in managerial positions or middle management in 2013

Total
PhD
Engineering school
Business school
Second year of a Master's degree
First year of a Master's degree
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale)
Vocational Bachelor's degree (Licence professionnelle)
Bac + 2/ + 3-level Health and social care
Other Bac + 2-level qualifications
University technology diploma (DUT)
Higher technical certificate (BTS)
Those who left other Bac + 2-level courses without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a BTS/DUT without obtaining a qualification
Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification
  
Managerial positions (%)
Middle management (%)
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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22.05 Median salary in 2013 for young people who left the education system in 2010

Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale)
First year of a Master's degree
Second year of a Master's degree
PhD
  
Arts, humanities, languages, human sciences
Law, economics, management
Sciences
 
 
📄 Source:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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Related statistical publication

Training & employment 111 - Leavers from higher education - Boris Ménard - May-June 2014
The young people who left higher education in 2010 and were surveyed as part of Céreq’s education-to-work transition surveys are not immune to the effects of the deteriorating economic situation. Although they are more highly qualified as a result of the introduction of the LMD (in French: licence, master, doctorat) degree structure, they are more likely to be unemployed and are slightly less well paid than their predecessors who left in 2004. Non-completers are still the group most at risk, but those with vocational degrees have also suffered the effects of the recession.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
24 - the first five years' career experience of young people leaving higher education in 2010 - Boris Ménard
9% of young people who left higher education in 2010 were unemployed in 2015, down by 4 points compared to 2013. But the background of the crisis has marked this Generation 2010, whose integration conditions are less favourable than those experienced by their predecessors in Generation 2004. At the same time, their working conditions have not improved much [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
22 - le début de carrière des jeunes sortant de l'enseignement supérieur - Boris Ménard
Près de 25 % des jeunes sortis sans diplôme en 2010 de l’enseignement supérieur sont au chômage en 2013 contre 13 % pour l’ensemble des sortants. À même niveau de diplôme, les diplômés de la voie professionnelle bénéficient toujours de meilleures conditions d’insertion sur le marché du travail [Consult the following page in french]


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