Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:OECD
MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

The data presented here are partly finalised. They are taken from a survey of organisations that carry out research work (ministerial departments, EPSTs, EPICs, higher education institutions, university hospitals, cancer research centres and not-for-profit institutions) on the resources dedicated to R&D in 2012.

France's public research institutions are made up of eight EPSTs (the CNRS, French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Spatial Planning, Development and Networks (Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux – IFSTTAR), INED, INRA, French National Institute for Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique – INRIA), INSERM, IRD and the National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (Institut de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l’environnement et l’agriculture – IRSTEA)) and twelve EPICs or similar types of organisations (the public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste (Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs – ANDRA), BRGM, CEA, CIRAD, CNES, CSTB, IFREMER, INERIS, IPEV, IRSN, LNE and ONERA). The IPEV has been a public interest group (groupement d’intérêt public) since 2011, but has been categorised as an EPIC for the purposes of the survey on resources dedicated to R&D.

The term 'R&D' covers three types of activities:

fundamental research involves experimental or theoretical work that is carried out with the primary aim of acquiring new knowledge about the principles of observable phenomena or facts, without this knowledge being intended for a specific application or use;

applied research also involves original research that is carried out with the aim of acquiring new knowledge. However, this kind of research is focused on a specific practical goal or objective;

experimental development involves systematic work that draws on existing knowledge gained through research and/or practical experience with the aim of manufacturing new materials, products or devices, creating new processes, systems and services or significantly improving existing ones.

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29 R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions

This page has been updated. Read 29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2012, the gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) of France's main public research institutions amounted to €9.1 billion, a fall of 1.1% in relation to 2011. These institutions carry out 55% of public research and are key stakeholders in research and development in France. The French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the civil division of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) conduct a third of public research, with GERD of €5.5 billion.

Eight State-owned scientific and technological establishments (Établissements publics à caractère scientifique et technologique – EPST) and a dozen State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (Établissements publics à caractère industriel et commercial – EPIC) make up France's main research institutions. They are supervised by one or more government ministries and have a public service remit. Their primary objective is to carry out research, particularly in fields or to achieve aims agreed in long-term target and performance contracts signed with the French government. They conduct more than half of public research and nearly a fifth of all research carried out within France (by both government bodies and enterprises) and as such are key stakeholders in the country's research and development sector. In 2012, these key public institutions invested €9.1 billion on GERD, equivalent to 55% of public research, with EPSTs accounting for 32% and EPICs 23% (table 29.01). Their R&D expenditure fell by 1.1% in relation to 2011 as a result of lower investment by EPICs.

The CNRS and the CEA are France's two largest research institutions. In 2012, they were responsible for 33% of all public research between them (19% for the CNRS and 14% for the civil division of the CEA). France's other research institutions are smaller in size: the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (Institut national de la recherche agronomique – INRA) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale – INSERM) each account for 5% of public research, while the French Government Space Agency (Centre national d’études spatiales – CNES) is responsible for 3%. The remaining public research institutions each account for 2% or less of research in France.

Some institutions focus primarily on fundamental research (chart 29.02). In 2012, this kind of research accounted for 89% of CNRS R&D expenditure and all R&D spending by the French Institute for Demographic Studies (Institut national d’études démographiques – INED) and the French Polar Institute (Institut polaire français Paul Émile Victor – IPEV). Other institutions are more focused on applied research, such as the civil division of the CEA (81% of its GERD), the French Government Geological Survey (Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières – BRGM), the Scientific and Technical Centre for Building Trades (Centre scientifique et technique du bâtiment – CSTB) and the National Competence Centre for Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection (Institut national de l’environnement industriel et des risques – INERIS).

Public institutions do not always fund all of their research work using domestic expenditure; they sometimes enter into partnerships or subcontracting arrangements with external organisations, such as enterprises, foreign governments, international organisations and foreign teams. In 2012, their R&D extramural expenditure was €0.7 billion. EPSTs make little use of such partnerships or subcontracting arrangements (chart 29.03). Overall, 6% (€0.3 billion) of their research work was carried out externally. Among these EPSTs, the Institute of Research for Development (Institut de recherche pour le développement – IRD) is unusual in that a significant proportion of its work is done in external partnerships, often via its worldwide network of offices.

On average, 8% of the research work done by EPICs in 2012 was funded by extramural expenditure. Although the French national public expert in nuclear and radiological risks (Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire – IRSN) continued to subcontract nearly a third of its research work, almost all of the work done by the BRGM, the civil division of the CEA, the French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer – IFREMER), the National Metrology and Test Laboratory (Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais – LNE) and the French National Aerospace Research Centre (Office national d’études et de recherches aérospatiales – ONERA) was funded by intramural expenditure, with less than 5% of their research conducted externally.

The proportion of research work carried out by EPSTs in collaboration with foreign governments increased overall in comparison with 2011. The IRD is once again an exception to the rule in that it invests 98.5% of its DERD abroad (chart 29.04). With regard to EPICs, while the IRSN and ONERA primarily entered into partnerships with public sector bodies, the IFREMER relied on businesses and the French Agricultural Research and International Cooperation Organisation (Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement – CIRAD) looked abroad, working with international organisations.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DIXTE Christophe. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 29, 68-69 [Accessed 07/19/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_R_29-r_d_expenditure_by_france_s_main_public_research_institutions.php

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The data presented here are partly finalised. They are taken from a survey of organisations that carry out research work (ministerial departments, EPSTs, EPICs, higher education institutions, university hospitals, cancer research centres and not-for-profit institutions) on the resources dedicated to R&D in 2012.

France's public research institutions are made up of eight EPSTs (the CNRS, French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Spatial Planning, Development and Networks (Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux – IFSTTAR), INED, INRA, French National Institute for Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique – INRIA), INSERM, IRD and the National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (Institut de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l’environnement et l’agriculture – IRSTEA)) and twelve EPICs or similar types of organisations (the public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste (Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs – ANDRA), BRGM, CEA, CIRAD, CNES, CSTB, IFREMER, INERIS, IPEV, IRSN, LNE and ONERA). The IPEV has been a public interest group (groupement d’intérêt public) since 2011, but has been categorised as an EPIC for the purposes of the survey on resources dedicated to R&D.

The term 'R&D' covers three types of activities:

fundamental research involves experimental or theoretical work that is carried out with the primary aim of acquiring new knowledge about the principles of observable phenomena or facts, without this knowledge being intended for a specific application or use;

applied research also involves original research that is carried out with the aim of acquiring new knowledge. However, this kind of research is focused on a specific practical goal or objective;

experimental development involves systematic work that draws on existing knowledge gained through research and/or practical experience with the aim of manufacturing new materials, products or devices, creating new processes, systems and services or significantly improving existing ones.

 

Key figures


Intramural R&D expenditure by State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC)
3.8 bn
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)
3,131 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by State-owned scientific and technological establishments (EPST) excluding CNRS
2.2 bn
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French National Aerospace Research Centre (ONERA)
233 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM)
802 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French Agricultural Research and International Cooperation Organisation (CIRAD)
141 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French National Institute for Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (INRIA)
216 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French research institute for the exploitation of the sea (IFREMER)
202 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Intramural R&D expenditure by the National research institute of science and technology for the environment and agriculture (IRSTEA)
115 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the civilian arm of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)
2,363 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Coverage: civilian activity
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)
810 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by the Institute of Research for Development (IRD)
168 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Intramural R&D expenditure by the French Government Space Agency (CNES)
514 M
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by R&D bodies
9.1 bn
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

29.01 Amount and breakdown of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by French government bodies in 2012 (in €bn and as a %)

 
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (in €bn) Breakdown of GERD by government bodies (as a %) Distribution of GERD (as a %)
Government bodies 16.5 100 35
R&D institutions 9.1 55 20
EPSTs 5.3 32 11
CNRS 3.1 19
INRA 0.8 5
INSERM 0.8 5
INRIA 0.2 1
IRD 0.2 1
IRSTEA 0.1 1
Other EPSTs 0.1 1
EPICs 3.8 23 8
CEA (civil division) 2.4 14
CNES 0.5 3
ONERA 0.2 1
IFREMER 0.2 1
CIRAD 0.1 1
Other EPICs 0.3 2
Other government bodies (including higher education institutions) 7.4 45 16
Companies 30.1 65
GERD 46.5 100

 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.02 Breakdown of GERD by France's main public institutions in 2012 by type of research (as a % and in €M) 1

CNRS
ONERA
INSERM
CIRAD
INRIA
CEA (civil division)
IFREMER
IRSTEA
  
Fundamental research
Applied research
Experimental development
 
 

1 Main public institutions in terms of GERD - excluding the CNES, INRA and IRD (breakdown data not available).

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.03 Proportion of R&D extramural expenditure (DERD) by France's main public institutions in 2012, in relation to their total R&D expenditure (GERD+DERD) (as a %) 1

IRD
CNES
CIRAD
INSERM
CNRS
IFREMER
INRIA
CEA (civil division)
INRA
IRSTEA
ONERA
 
 

1 Main public institutions in terms of GERD.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.04 Breakdown of R&D extramural expenditure (DERD) by France's main public institutions in 2012 by institutional sector (as a % and €M) 1

ONERA
INSERM
INRIA
INRA
CNRS
IRSTEA
CNES
IFREMER
CIRAD
IRD
  
Governments
Companies
Foreign and international organisations
 
 

1 Main public institutions in terms of GERD, excluding the CEA (data not available).

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Related statistical publications

 Repères et références statistiques sur les enseignements, la formation et la recherche - RERS - RERS - 2014 - Recherche et développement - 2014
La R&D française est présentée du point de vue des effectifs de chercheurs, de la dépense intérieure et extérieure, de la répartition des financements entre acteurs privés et publics.
 Note d'information SIES 14.07 - Research and development expenditure in France in 2012 - Christophe Dixte, Anna Testas - August 2014
In 2012, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) stood at 46.5 billion euros (€bn), an increase of 1.9% in volume against 2011.

The rise in GERD was the result of a steady increase in business R&D expenditure, with government expenditure remaining stable. The country's research effort, measured as a ratio of GERD to gross domestic product (GDP), was 2.23% in 2012. It is likely to remain stable at 2.23% in 2013.

Due to a slowdown in business R&D expenditure, GERD is in fact likely to increase by 0.5% in volume in 2013 (provisional results), a rate that is only slightly higher than that of GDP.

In 2012, R&D activities in business enterprises and in government mobilised 412,000 full-time equivalent staff.
 Note d'information SIES 13.06 - Research and development expenditure in France in 2011 - First estimates for 2012 - Caroline Iannone, Nicolas Le Ru - July 2013
In 2011, gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) stood at €45.0 billion, up by 2.3% in volume compared with 2010. The increase in GERD was the result of significant growth in business R&D expenditure. Business enterprises contributed around 2.2 percentage points to the increase in GERD, with government contributing 0.1 points.


Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
29 - R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions - Philippe Roussel
In 2014, the gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) of France's main public research institutions amounted to €9.1 billion, down by 1.1% in relation to 2013. These institutions carry out 55% of public research and are key stakeholders in research and development in France. The French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the civil division of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) conduct a third of public research, with GERD of €5.5 billion [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
30 - R&D expenditure by France's main public research institutions - Christophe Dixte
In 2013, the gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) of France's main public research institutions amounted to €9.2 billion, up by 0.9% in relation to 2012. These institutions carry out 55% of public research and are key stakeholders in research and development in France. The French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the civil division of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) conduct a third of public research, with GERD of €5.6 billion [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
29 - les dépenses de recherche des principaux organismes publics - Christophe Dixte
En 2012, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement (DIRD) des principaux organismes publics de recherche s’élève à 9,1 milliards d’euros (Md€), en baisse de 1,1 % par rapport à 2011. Réalisant 55 % de la recherche publique, ils sont des acteurs majeurs de la recherche en France. Le CNRS et le CEA civil effectuent un tiers de la recherche publique avec 5,5 Md€ de DIRD [Consult the following page in french]


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