Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

The term government or ‘public research’ sector covers all state dedicated research institutions (EPSTs and EPICs), state higher education institutions, university hospitals, French comprehensive cancer centres (Centres de lutte contre le cancer – CLCC) and the public non-profit sector (PNP), as well as civil and military government departments that fund or carry out R&D. The ‘business enterprise’ sector covers state-owned or private businesses that conduct R&D. ‘Abroad’ refers to state or private operators located outside of France and international organisations such as the European Union.

Public service, operating and capital allocations are all classified as budget allocations. ‘Contractual resources’ are understood to mean resources provided by third parties through contracts, agreements or subsidies. Institutions that receive these types of resources are bound to adhere to a specific research programme or to build a given piece of equipment. Allocations for research, contracts, agreements and calls for proposals that require the recipient institution to adhere to a specific research programme are categorised as contractual resources provided by the government. This is the case for the ANR, the INCA and local authorities in particular. Contracts managed by the subsidiaries of institutions, which often take the form of sociétés anonymes (limited liability companies) or sociétés par action simplifiée (simplified joint-stock companies) are not included in this analysis as they are covered in the survey of businesses.

The total R&D budget is the sum of gross domestic expenditure on R&D and extramural R&D expenditure. Some items may be counted twice as the extramural R&D expenditure of one institution may be the same as the domestic expenditure of another.

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30 funding for public research and development

This page has been updated. Read 30. funding for public research and development in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2012, budget allocations spent on public research totalled nearly €13 billion and funded 69% of all public research and development (R&D). In 2012, resources contributed by institutions themselves accounted for nearly €6 billion and almost 30% of R&D funding for public research.

Funding for public research comes primarily from budget allocations from the Inter-Ministerial Mission for Research and Higher Education (Mission interministérielle recherche et enseignement supérieur – MIRES). These allocations cover R&D carried out at state institutions, as well as that done in the four other sectors in France and abroad. They include public service subsidies and allocations designed to finance university research, dedicated state research institutions, funding bodies for research projects, various mechanisms for funding and promoting R&D by businesses and research carried out through public-private partnerships. They also include funding for measures that aim to share and promote scientific and technical culture. In 2014, the MIRES allocated a total of €15 billion to research, as compared with €14 billion in 2012 and 2013.

In 2012, resources for all public research (whether carried out internally by institutions or subcontracted to external organisations) totalled €18.7 billion (table 30.01). These came largely from budget allocations (69%), with the remainder made up by the institutions themselves, most often by means of contractual resources. The budget allocations spent came primarily (88%) from the MIRES (chart 30.02), with the remainder provided by contributions from other government departments. The proportion of budget allocations varied depending on the type of institution. It was larger for higher education institutions (76%) than for dedicated research institutions (69%) due to the high number of state-owned industrial and commercial establishments (établissements publics à caractère industriel et commercial – EPIC) in this latter group (chart 30.03), and was very small for the public non-profit sector (13%).

The resources contributed by institutions themselves fell into two distinct categories: ‘contractual resources’ (including contracts, agreements and calls for proposals), which accounted for 22% (€4.1 billion) of funding for public research (table 30.01), and other types of resources provided by institutions themselves (9% of total funding). Contractual funding came primarily from the public sector (€2.4 billion), with dedicated state research institutions linked together by a complex network of research collaboration. More than half of these contracts came from government funding sources such as the French National Research Agency (Agence nationale de la recherche – ANR), the French National Cancer Institute (Institut national du cancer – INCA), Bpifrance and local authorities (chart 30.05). This proportion varied depending on the type of institution: it was a little larger for higher education institutions (55%) and state-owned scientific and technological establishments (établissements publics à caractère scientifique et technologique – EPST; around 51%), than for EPICs (33%) (chart 30.05). The remainder came from collaborations between the various institutions that conduct public research. Public research was also funded through contracts with businesses, which accounted for a total of €0.8 billion. It also received an equivalent amount in contractual funding from abroad, from international organisations and from the European Union. EPICs and higher education institutions were the main beneficiaries of such foreign funding (chart 30.04), with the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives – CEA) and the French Government Space Agency (Centre national d’études spatiales – CNES) receiving the lion’s share.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DAVID Catherine. Funding for public research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 30, 70-71 [Accessed 11/15/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_R_30-funding_for_public_research_and_development.php

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The term government or ‘public research’ sector covers all state dedicated research institutions (EPSTs and EPICs), state higher education institutions, university hospitals, French comprehensive cancer centres (Centres de lutte contre le cancer – CLCC) and the public non-profit sector (PNP), as well as civil and military government departments that fund or carry out R&D. The ‘business enterprise’ sector covers state-owned or private businesses that conduct R&D. ‘Abroad’ refers to state or private operators located outside of France and international organisations such as the European Union.

Public service, operating and capital allocations are all classified as budget allocations. ‘Contractual resources’ are understood to mean resources provided by third parties through contracts, agreements or subsidies. Institutions that receive these types of resources are bound to adhere to a specific research programme or to build a given piece of equipment. Allocations for research, contracts, agreements and calls for proposals that require the recipient institution to adhere to a specific research programme are categorised as contractual resources provided by the government. This is the case for the ANR, the INCA and local authorities in particular. Contracts managed by the subsidiaries of institutions, which often take the form of sociétés anonymes (limited liability companies) or sociétés par action simplifiée (simplified joint-stock companies) are not included in this analysis as they are covered in the survey of businesses.

The total R&D budget is the sum of gross domestic expenditure on R&D and extramural R&D expenditure. Some items may be counted twice as the extramural R&D expenditure of one institution may be the same as the domestic expenditure of another.

 

Key figures


Share of budget provision for funding public research
69.2%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "30. funding for public research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of resources through contracts in government research funding
21.8%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "30. funding for public research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of own resources excluding contracts in government research funding
9%
 
2012
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "30. funding for public research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

30.01 Type and sources of funding for public research in 2012 (in €M)

 
Budget allocations 1 Resources contributed by institutions themselves
Contractual resources Other resources contributed by institutions themselves Total
in €M as % in €M as % in €M as % in €M as %
Government sector 7,744 69.2 2,457 22.0 985 8.8 11,187 61.6
EPSTs (excluding the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) 1,798 76.1 420 17.8 96 4.1 2,362 12.6
CNRS 2,518 73.2 745 21.7 176 5.1 3,440 18.5
EPICs 2,204 53.3 1,243 30.0 692 16.7 4,139 23.2
Government departments and other state institutions 1,224 94.5 49 3.8 21 1.7 1,295 7.3
Higher education sector 5,108 76.1 1,274 19.0 331 4.9 6,713 34.5
Higher education institutions not overseen by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) 300 59.2 165 32.6 42 8.3 507 2.5
Universities and higher education institutions 4,808 77.5 1,109 17.9 290 4.7 6,207 32.0
Private non-profit sector 104 12.8 350 43.1 359 44.2 812.2 4.0
All public research 12,956 69.2 4,081 21.8 1,675 9.0 18,712 100.0
 

1 Budget allocations are funds set aside for institutions in the government budget. In accordance with the methodology used here, the term refers to allocations that have been spent. The figures are semi-finalised.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.02 Types of funding for public research in 2012 (in €M)

Subsidies (MIRES)
Subsidies (excluding MIRES)
Contractual resources
Other resources contributed by institutions themselves
  
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.03 Types of funding for public research in 2012 (in €M)

State institutions and government departments
Higher education
Not-for-profit institutions
All public research and development
  
Budget allocations
Contractual resources
Other resources contributed by institutions themselves
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.04 Sources of contracts won by the main institutions carrying out public research in 2012 (in €M)

All public research
Private non-profit sector
Higher education
Government departments and other public administrative bodies (EPAs)
EPICs
CNRS
EPSTs (excluding the CNRS)
  
Public research 1
Businesses
Abroad 2
 
 

1 Government, higher education and the private non-profit sector.
2 Including international organisations.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.05 Proportion of contractual resources for public research provided by government in 2012 (in €M)

All public research
Private non-profit sector
Higher education
Government departments and other public administrative bodies (EPAs)
EPICs
CNRS
EPSTs (excluding the CNRS)
  
Government 1
Other state funding sources 2
 
 

1 Government funding sources include the ANR, INCA, Bpifrance and local authorities.
2 EPSTs, EPICs, higher education.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Related statistical publications

 Repères et références statistiques sur les enseignements, la formation et la recherche - RERS - RERS - 2014 - Recherche et développement - 2014
La R&D française est présentée du point de vue des effectifs de chercheurs, de la dépense intérieure et extérieure, de la répartition des financements entre acteurs privés et publics.
 Note d'information SIES 14.07 - Research and development expenditure in France in 2012 - Christophe Dixte, Anna Testas - August 2014
In 2012, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) stood at 46.5 billion euros (€bn), an increase of 1.9% in volume against 2011.

The rise in GERD was the result of a steady increase in business R&D expenditure, with government expenditure remaining stable. The country's research effort, measured as a ratio of GERD to gross domestic product (GDP), was 2.23% in 2012. It is likely to remain stable at 2.23% in 2013.

Due to a slowdown in business R&D expenditure, GERD is in fact likely to increase by 0.5% in volume in 2013 (provisional results), a rate that is only slightly higher than that of GDP.

In 2012, R&D activities in business enterprises and in government mobilised 412,000 full-time equivalent staff.
 Note d'information SIES 13.06 - Research and development expenditure in France in 2011 - First estimates for 2012 - Caroline Iannone, Nicolas Le Ru - July 2013
In 2011, gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) stood at €45.0 billion, up by 2.3% in volume compared with 2010. The increase in GERD was the result of significant growth in business R&D expenditure. Business enterprises contributed around 2.2 percentage points to the increase in GERD, with government contributing 0.1 points.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
30 - funding for public research and development - Catherine David & Philippe Roussel
In 2014, budget allocations spent on public research totalled nearly €13 billion and funded 68% of all public research and development (R&D). Resources contributed by institutions themselves accounted for nearly €6 billion and for 32% of R&D funding for public research [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
31 - funding for public research and development - Catherine David
In 2013, budget allocations spent on public research totalled nearly €13 billion and funded 69% of all public research and development (R&D). Resources contributed by institutions themselves accounted for nearly €6 billion and for 31% of R&D funding for public research [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
30 - le financement des activités de recherche et développement de la recherche publique - Catherine David
En 2012, les dotations budgétaires consommées par la recherche publique pour la R&D s’élèvent à près de 13 milliards d’euros (Md€) et financent 69 % de leur activité totale de R&D. En 2012, les ressources propres représentent près de 6 Md€ et comptent pour près de 30 % des financements de la R&D de la recherche publique [Consult the following page in french]


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