Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

The term government or ‘public research’ sector covers all state dedicated research institutions (EPSTs and EPICs), state higher education institutions, university hospitals, French comprehensive cancer centres (CLCC) and the public non-profit sector (PNP), as well as civil and military government departments that fund or carry out R&D. The ‘business enterprise’ sector covers state-owned or private businesses that conduct R&D. ‘Abroad’ refers to State or private operators located outside of France and international organisations such as the European Union.

Public service, operating and capital allocations are all classified as budget allocations. ‘Contractual resources’ are understood to mean resources provided by third parties through contracts, agreements or subsidies. Institutions that receive these types of resources are bound to adhere to a specific research programme or to build a given piece of equipment. Allocations for research, contracts, agreements and calls for proposals that require the recipient institution to adhere to a specific research programme are categorised as contractual resources provided by the government. This is the case for the ANR, the INCA and local authorities in particular. Contracts managed by the subsidiaries of institutions, which often take the form of sociétés anonymes (limited liability companies) or sociétés par action simplifiée (simplified joint-stock companies) are not included in this analysis as they are covered in the survey of businesses.

The total R&D budget is the sum of gross domestic expenditure on R&D and extramural R&D expenditure. Some items may be counted twice as the extramural R&D expenditure of one institution may be the same as the domestic expenditure of another.

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30 funding for public research and development

In 2014, budget allocations spent on public research totalled nearly €13 billion and funded 68% of all public research and development (R&D). Resources contributed by institutions themselves accounted for nearly €6 billion and for 32% of R&D funding for public research.

Funding for public research comes primarily from budget allocations from the Inter-Ministerial Mission for Research and Higher Education (MIRES). These allocations cover R&D carried out at State institutions, as well as in the four other sectors in France and abroad (see Methodology). They include public service subsidies and allocations designed to finance university research, dedicated State research institutions, funding bodies for research projects, various mechanisms for funding and promoting R&D by businesses and research carried out through public-private partnerships. They also include funding for measures that aim to share and promote scientific and technical culture. In 2015, the MIRES allocated a total of €12.8 billion to research, as compared with €13.8 billion in 2014 and €14 billion 2013.

In 2014, resources for all public research (whether carried out internally by institutions or subcontracted to external organisations) totalled €19.1 billion (table 30.01). These came largely from budget allocations (68%), with the remainder made up by the institutions themselves, most often by means of contractual resources. The budget allocations spent came primarily (89%) from the MIRES (chart 30.02), with the remainder provided by contributions from other government departments. The proportion of budget allocations varied depending on the type of institution. It was larger for higher education institutions (73%) than for dedicated research institutions (67%) due to the high number of state-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC) in this latter group (chart 30.03), and was very small for the public non-profit sector (10%). These proportions decrease as total budgetary allocations decrease.

The resources contributed by institutions themselves fell into two distinct categories: ‘contractual resources’ (including contracts, agreements and calls for proposals), which accounted for 23% (€4.4 billion) of funding for public research (table 30.01), and other types of resources provided by institutions themselves (9% of total funding). Contractual funding came primarily from the public sector (€2.6 billion) (chart 30.04), with dedicated state research institutions linked together by a complex network of research collaboration. More than half of these contracts came from government funding sources such as the French National Research Agency (ANR), the French National Cancer Institute (INCA), Bpifrance and local authorities. This proportion varied depending on the type of institution: it was a little larger for higher education institutions (56%) and state-owned scientific and technological establishments (EPST; around 53%), than for EPICs (26%). Public research was also funded through contracts with businesses, which accounted for a total of €0.9 billion. It also received an equivalent amount in contractual funding from abroad, from international organisations and from the European Union. EPICs and higher education institutions were the main beneficiaries of such foreign funding (chart 30.04), with the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French Government Space Agency (CNES) receiving the lion’s share.

Other public research resources fund 9% of public sector R&D. These come from intellectual property royalties, donations and legacies, and service provision. Their proportion is structurally greater in the public non-profit sector (44%) and EPICs (18%).

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 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DAVID Catherine, ROUSSEL Philippe. Funding for public research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 30 [Accessed 06/20/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_R_30-funding_for_public_research_and_development.php

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The term government or ‘public research’ sector covers all state dedicated research institutions (EPSTs and EPICs), state higher education institutions, university hospitals, French comprehensive cancer centres (CLCC) and the public non-profit sector (PNP), as well as civil and military government departments that fund or carry out R&D. The ‘business enterprise’ sector covers state-owned or private businesses that conduct R&D. ‘Abroad’ refers to State or private operators located outside of France and international organisations such as the European Union.

Public service, operating and capital allocations are all classified as budget allocations. ‘Contractual resources’ are understood to mean resources provided by third parties through contracts, agreements or subsidies. Institutions that receive these types of resources are bound to adhere to a specific research programme or to build a given piece of equipment. Allocations for research, contracts, agreements and calls for proposals that require the recipient institution to adhere to a specific research programme are categorised as contractual resources provided by the government. This is the case for the ANR, the INCA and local authorities in particular. Contracts managed by the subsidiaries of institutions, which often take the form of sociétés anonymes (limited liability companies) or sociétés par action simplifiée (simplified joint-stock companies) are not included in this analysis as they are covered in the survey of businesses.

The total R&D budget is the sum of gross domestic expenditure on R&D and extramural R&D expenditure. Some items may be counted twice as the extramural R&D expenditure of one institution may be the same as the domestic expenditure of another.

 

Key figures


Share of own resources excluding contracts in government research funding
8.1%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "30. funding for public research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of budget provision for funding public research
70%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "30. funding for public research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of resources through contracts in government research funding
21.9%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "30. funding for public research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

30.01 Type and sources of funding for public research in 2014  1 (€M, %)

 
Budget allocations 1 Own resources
Contractual resources Other own resources Total
€M % €M % €M % €M %
Government sector 7,829 70.0 2,450 21.9 909 8.1 11,188 61.6
EPST (excluding CNRS) 1,859 75.4 505 20.5 102 4.1 2,467 12.6
CNRS 2,568 78.0 685 20.8 37 1.1 3,290 18.5
EPICs 2,177 52.6 1,207 29.2 756 18.3 4,141 23.2
Government departments and other state institutions 1,224 94.9 52 4.1 13 1.0 1,290 7.3
Higher education sector 5,076 73.4 1,449 21.0 392 5.7 6,918 34.5
Higher education institutions not overseen by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) 258 58.7 128 29.1 53 12.2 439 2.5
Universities and higher education institutions 4,818 74.4 1,322 20.4 338 5.2 6,478 32.0
Private non-profit sector 99 10.0 460 46.4 432 43.6 991 4.0
All public research 13,004 68.1 4,359 22.8 1,733 9.1 19,096 100
 

1 Semi-finalised results.
2 Budget allocations are funds set aside for institutions in the government budget. In accordance with the methodology used here, the term refers to allocations that have been spent.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.02 Types of funding for public research in 2014 1 (€M)

Subsidies (MIRES)
Subsidies (excluding MIRES)
Contractual resources
Other resources contributed by institutions themselves
  
 
 

1 Semi-finalised results.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.03 Structure of funding for public research in 2014 1 (%)

State institutions and government departments including research bodies
Higher education
Not-for-profit institutions
Total public research
  
Budget allocations
Contractual resources
Other resources contributed by institutions themselves
 
 

1 Semi-finalised results.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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30.04 Sources of contracts won by the main institutions carrying out public research in 2014 1 (€M, %)

All public research
Private non-profit institutions
Higher education
Government departments and other public administrative bodies (EPAs)
EPICs
CNRS
EPST (excluding CNRS)
  
Public research 2
Businesses
Abroad  3
 
 

1 Semi-finalised results.
2 Government, higher education and the non-profit sector.
3 Including international organisations and the European Union.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Related statistical publications

 Note d'information SIES 17.04 - Les coopérations public-privé pour l'innovation en France - Samih Atmane, Anna Testas - February 2017
Entre 2010 et 2012, 35 % des entreprises françaises qui ont des activités d’innovation réalisent celles-ci avec des partenaires, notamment des clients ou des fournisseurs. Elles sont 14 % à coopérer avec la recherche publique. Cette propension à coopérer avec un partenaire public est plus élevée pour les entreprises des secteurs de haute technologie, les grandes entreprises et, quelle que soit leur taille, celles dont le marché est mondial. Les petites entreprises des services à forte intensité de savoir ont également une forte propension à coopérer avec la recherche publique.

À caractéristiques comparables, les entreprises coopérant avec la recherche publique ont une probabilité plus forte de déposer un brevet que celles qui le font avec un autre type de partenaire. Au total, les entreprises qui coopèrent avec la recherche publique pour innover apparaissent fortement innovatrices et présentes sur les marchés internationaux.
 Note d'information SIES 16.12 - Dépenses de recherche et développement en France - Résultats détaillés pour 2014 et premières estimations pour 2015 - Philippe Roussel, Camille Schweitzer - December 2016
En 2014, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement (DIRD) s’établit à 47,9 milliards d’euros (Md€), en hausse de 0,6 % en volume par rapport à 2013. L’augmentation de la DIRD résulte de la progression des dépenses de recherche et développement (R&D) des entreprises (+ 1,2 %), mais est modérée par une légère diminution des dépenses des administrations (- 0,4 %). Les activités de R&D dans les entreprises et les administrations mobilisent 417 200 personnes, en équivalent temps plein. L’effort de recherche de la nation, mesuré en rapportant la DIRD au produit intérieur brut (PIB), se maintient à 2,24 % en 2014. Il pourrait légèrement diminuer en 2015, pour atteindre 2,23 %. En effet, l’évolution de la DIRD devrait accélérer (+ 0,9 % en volume, estimation) grâce à la progression de la DIRD des entreprises et des administrations, mais moins rapidement que le PIB (+ 1,3 %).

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
31 - funding for public research and development - Catherine David
In 2013, budget allocations spent on public research totalled nearly €13 billion and funded 69% of all public research and development (R&D). Resources contributed by institutions themselves accounted for nearly €6 billion and for 31% of R&D funding for public research [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
30 - funding for public research and development - Catherine David
In 2012, budget allocations spent on public research totalled nearly €13 billion and funded 69% of all public research and development (R&D). In 2012, resources contributed by institutions themselves accounted for nearly €6 billion and almost 30% of R&D funding for public research [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°10 - Avril 2017
30 - le financement des activités de recherche et développement de la recherche publique - Catherine David & Philippe Roussel
En 2014, les dotations budgétaires consommées par la recherche publique pour la R&D s’élèvent à près de 13 milliards d’euros (Md€) et financent 68 % de l’activité totale de R&D des administrations. Les ressources propres représentent 6 Md€ et comptent pour 32 % des financements du secteur public [Consult the following page in french]


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