Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Ministry of the Interior, DGCL
Insee.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France or whole of France, dependng on type of data.

The data presented here are taken from the annual survey conducted by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche – MENESR) on local authorities’ R&T budgets. They are based on actual expenditure and as such are final figures, with the exception of those for the 2013 financial year (which are semi-finalised).

Only self-financing local authorities were included in the survey, namely, regional and departmental councils, certain EPCIs (metropolitan areas, urban communities, conurbation communities, communities of municipalities and intermunicipal new town consortia) and a sample group of municipal councils. The Corsican local authority and Mayotte departmental council, as well as the governments of French Polynesia and New Caledonia, were classified as regional councils, while the governments of the three provinces of New Caledonia were classified as departmental councils.

The term ‘research and technology’ (R&T) covers all activities that aim to expand research and development (R&D) carried out by dedicated state research institutions and public services, as well as supporting R&D and innovation among businesses, promoting technology transfer and research findings and cultivating a scientific and technical culture.

The total actual expenditure of French regions is taken from their administrative accounts, which are held by the Directorate-General for Local Authorities (Direction générale des collectivités locales – DGCL).

The Single Inter-ministerial Fund (Fonds unique interministériel – FUI) finances collaborative R&D projects that are approved by competitiveness clusters. 2010 is the base year for the national GDP used. Figures ‘in real terms’ are adjusted to take account of inflation, with changes in prices calculated using the GDP deflator. 2005 is the base year for the regional GDP used (source: Insee).

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32 funding of research and technology by local authorities

This page has been updated. Read 32. funding of research and technology by local authorities in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2013, local authorities devoted €1.3 billion to funding research and technology (R&T). This funding went in large part towards property and technology transfer transactions. Regional councils accounted for 68% of this funding, while public establishments for cooperation between local authorities increased their contribution.

In 2013, the R&T budget for local authorities accounted for 8% (€1.35 billion) of all state funding for R&D 1 (table 32.01), with overseas territorial authorities contributing 2.7%. Between 2012 and 2013, the R&T budget increased markedly, in large part as the result of transactions that fell under the 2007-2013 state-region project contract (contrat de projet état-région – CPER), which accounted for nearly a third of the R&T budget in 2013. Local authorities also devoted €150 million of their R&T budget to supporting competitiveness clusters. This funding was used to help run these clusters or to support projects approved by them, including those financed by the Single Inter-ministerial Fund (Fonds unique interministériel – FUI).

Regional councils were the main source of local funding for R&T (accounting for 68% of the local R&T budget). Between 2011 and 2013, the proportion of funding contributed by municipal councils and public establishments for cooperation between local authorities (établissements publics de coopération intercommunale – EPCI) to the local R&T budget increased by four percentage points, while that provided by departmental councils fell. At municipal and intermunicipal level, EPCIs together accounted for nine tenths of the R&T budget as the vast majority of municipal councils transferred their powers in this area to intermunicipal organisations.

R&T funding was spent first and foremost on property transactions, which accounted for 36% of the R&T budget in the 2011-2013 period. Property transactions even accounted for as much as three quarters of the R&T deals that fell under the CPER. Technology transfer and other forms of support for business innovation absorbed 28% of the R&T budget. 31% of R&T funding went towards public research (excluding property transactions), with 14% used to support R&D projects, 8% spent on laboratory equipment and 9% on supporting researchers. 3% of funding was used to share and promote scientific culture and 2% was spent on broadband networks designed to support research (chart 32.02).

The high levels of funding contributed by regional councils to the R&T budget in 2008 and 2009 (in comparison with their overall budget) fell sharply in 2010 (chart 32.03). R&T expenditure remained virtually stable between 2011 and 2012, but increased sharply between 2012 and 2013, reflecting a corresponding rise in funding in this area as it began to grow once more, particularly with regard to property transactions (whether agreed under the CPER or otherwise).

Mapping R&T budgets by region reveals a certain polarisation. Between 2011 and 2013, five regions contributed on average more than half (52%) of the R&T budget for regional councils within metropolitan France: Île-de-France (17%), Rhône-Alpes (10%), Aquitaine (9%), Pays de la Loire (8%) and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur (7%).

Regional funding for R&T can also be assessed by studying the amount spent on research as a proportion of the regional economy. R&T expenditure as a proportion of the total expenditure of a particular regional council is compared with regional business enterprise (BERD) and government (GOVERD) expenditure on R&D as a proportion of that region’s GDP. Each region is therefore compared against the national situation (chart 32.04). In 2012, the GERD of metropolitan France accounted for 2.3% of its GDP, while funding for R&T contributed by all regional councils within metropolitan France accounted for 3.1% of their total actual expenditure. In 2012, three of the twenty two regions within metropolitan France – Franche-Comté, Rhône-Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur – contributed more than the average for metropolitan France, in terms of both funding for R&T and the performance of R&D by businesses and government bodies. Conversely, eight regions fell below the average for metropolitan France for these two indicators.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France or whole of France, dependng on type of data.

1 State funding for R&D includes the budgets of the French government and local authorities, as well as France’s involvement in the European Union’s framework programme for research and technological development.

How to cite this paper :

PERRAIN Laurent. Funding of research and technology by local authorities. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 32, 74-75 [Accessed 06/19/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_R_32-funding_of_research_and_technology_by_local_authorities.php

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The data presented here are taken from the annual survey conducted by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l’Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche – MENESR) on local authorities’ R&T budgets. They are based on actual expenditure and as such are final figures, with the exception of those for the 2013 financial year (which are semi-finalised).

Only self-financing local authorities were included in the survey, namely, regional and departmental councils, certain EPCIs (metropolitan areas, urban communities, conurbation communities, communities of municipalities and intermunicipal new town consortia) and a sample group of municipal councils. The Corsican local authority and Mayotte departmental council, as well as the governments of French Polynesia and New Caledonia, were classified as regional councils, while the governments of the three provinces of New Caledonia were classified as departmental councils.

The term ‘research and technology’ (R&T) covers all activities that aim to expand research and development (R&D) carried out by dedicated state research institutions and public services, as well as supporting R&D and innovation among businesses, promoting technology transfer and research findings and cultivating a scientific and technical culture.

The total actual expenditure of French regions is taken from their administrative accounts, which are held by the Directorate-General for Local Authorities (Direction générale des collectivités locales – DGCL).

The Single Inter-ministerial Fund (Fonds unique interministériel – FUI) finances collaborative R&D projects that are approved by competitiveness clusters. 2010 is the base year for the national GDP used. Figures ‘in real terms’ are adjusted to take account of inflation, with changes in prices calculated using the GDP deflator. 2005 is the base year for the regional GDP used (source: Insee).

 

Key figures


Budget of Regional councils devoted to R&T
918.3 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: budget achieved
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Budget of Departmental councils devoted to R&T
180.9 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: budget achieved
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Budget of municipalities and Public establishments for cooperation between local authorities (EPCI) devoted to R&T
243.8 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: budget achieved
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to property transactions
36.2%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to equipment for public laboratories
7.9%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to public research projects
14.4%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to support for researchers
8.9%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to technology transfer and innovation
27.9%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to broadband networks
1.7%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to the dissemination of scientific culture
3%
 
2011-2012-2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T in total expenditure by Regional councils
3.1%
 
2011-2012-2013
Metropolitan France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

32.01 R&T budget for local authorities from 2011 to 2013 (actual expenditure, in €M)

 
2011 2012 2013
Total R&T budget 1,184.6 1,213.9 1,343.1
expenditure under the CPER 306.2 370.7 415.5
R&T budget allocated to competitiveness clusters 176.1 158.0 147.7
Regional councils 810.9 825.4 918.3
Departmental councils 209.9 199.3 180.9
Municipal councils and EPCIs 163.7 189.2 243.8

 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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32.02 Breakdown of funding allocated to each objective in the R&T budget of local authorities - Average from 2011 to 2013 (%)

Sharing and promoting scientific culture
Broadband networks
Technology transfers / innovation
Support for researchers
Public research projects
State-funded equipment for laboratoriess
Property transactions
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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32.03 Regional councils within metropolitan France - R&T budget and changes in the R&T budget and the budget approved by local authorities at the start of the financial year ('primitive' budget) between 2007 and 2013 (in €M and as %)

2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
R&T budget for regional councils in metropolitan France (in current €M)
Changes in the amount of the R&T budget spent / n-1 (%)
Changes in the amount of total actual expenditure (1) / n-1 (%)
 
 

2010 is used as the base year for national GDP (Insee).
1 The total actual expenditure of regional councils is taken from their administrative accounts, which are held by the Directorate-General for Local Authorities (Direction générale des collectivités locales – DGCL).

 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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32.04 Regional funding for performing and financing R&D in 2012

  
East
South West
Paris basin East
Paris basin
West
Mediterranean
Île-de-France
Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur
Metropolitan France
 
 

2005 is the base year for regional GDP.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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Related statistical publications

 Recherche et Transfert de technologie, Enseignement supérieur et Vie étudiante - Le financement par les collectivités territorialesFunding of research and technology transfer by territorial authorities - Survey carried out in 2015 - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé, Laurent Perrain - March 2016
Research & development and technology transfer activities (R&T) are recognised as a necessary factor in economic growth. Local authorities, in particular regional authorities, make a significant contribution to creating and extending an environment that is favourable to innovation. Research funding by the various levels of local authority is generally modest compared to State budget expenditure in this area (8% of public funding). However, a continual effort is made to promote innovation and technology transfer at local level. In 2014, the budgets declared for R&T therefore amounted to €1.3 billion.

The amount budgeted by local authorities for R&T is guided by the national and European territorial planning policy through the State-region project contracts (CPER). It is also guided by the Competitiveness Clusters policy, and more recently by the Investing for the Future Programmes (Programmes Investissements d’Avenir - PIA). Similarly, in the context of the ERDF regional operational programmes, the European policy of support for innovation and economic cohesion has firstly led to the production of Regional Innovation Strategies (SRI) and, since 2014, Intelligent Specialisation Strategies (3S), which promote intelligent, sustainable, inclusive growth.
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Research and technology transfer (R&T) are acknowledged as necessary for economic development. Territorial authorities, especially the regions, make a significant contribution to creating and expanding an environment that fosters innovation, even though research funding by the different territorial levels remains fairly modest overall (8% of public funding. See chap. 2.1) compared with government expenditure in this area. Nevertheless, from 2007 to 2013, budgets declared for R&T increased by 42%. In 2013, they stood at €1.34 billion.

Since 2003, the annual survey of R&T budgets carried out by the Information Systems and Statistical Studies Department (Systèmes d’information et études statistiques -SIES) of the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - MENESR) (MENESR - SCSESR - SIES - A2.3) provides a measurement of funds allocated or spent by territorial authorities in support of research.
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 Note recherche 06.01 - Les configurations régionales des activités de recherche et développement en 2003 - Estelle Dhont-Peltrault - January 2006
La forte concentration de la recherche (comme par exemple en Ile-de-France) conduit à réduire la place des autres régions. En effet, au total, les quatre premières régions (Ile-de-France, PACA, Rhône-Alpes et Midi-Pyrénées) représentent à elles seules près de 70 % de la recherche exécutée en France. Toutefois, une analyse plus approfondie des indicateurs permet de rendre compte de régions aux poids économiques relativement faibles mais où les efforts en matière de recherche et développement sont importants. Quatre groupes de régions apparaissent ; les régions à fort potentiel de recherche où l'activité de recherche est réalisée dans des secteurs de haute technologie. Le 2ème groupe où la recherche est exécutée par le secteur privé et la recherche publique menée par les Universités : ce sont les régions de Picardie, Haute-Normandie, Franche-Comté, Limousin et Champagne-Ardenne. Le 3ème groupe est constitué de régions spécialisées dans l'agro-alimentaire et les secteurs primaires ; en font partie la Basse-Normandie, le Nord-Pas-de-Calais, les Pays de Loire, la Bretagne. Le 4ème groupe est constitué de régions intermédiaires comme le Centre, la Bourgogne ou l'Alsace, par exemple, marquées comme faibles en recherche et développement avec une recherche publique réalisée par des établissements publics à caractère scientifique et technologique ( EPST). L'Auvergne constitue à elle seule un groupe à part marqué par la recherche industrielle dans le caoutchouc. Cette typologie des régions en matière de recherche et développement est relativement stable, hormis l'Aquitaine qui rejoint le groupe 3 en raison d'une forte augmentation de la part des EPIC dans sa recherche publique.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
32 - funding of research and technology by local authorities - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé & Laurent Perrain
In 2014, local authorities devoted €1.3 billion to funding research and technology (R&T). This funding went in large part towards property transactions and technology transfer and innovation. Regional councils accounted for two-thirds of R&T funding, while municipalities were the second local contributor [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
33 - funding of research and technology by local authorities - Laurent Perrain
In 2014, local authorities devoted €1.3 billion to funding research and technology (R&T). This funding went in large part towards property transactions and technology transfer and innovation. Regional councils accounted for two-thirds of R&T funding, while municipalities were the second local contributor [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°8 - juin 2015
32 - le financement de la R&T par les collectivités territoriales - Laurent Perrain
En 2013, les collectivités territoriales consacrent 1,3 milliard d’euros (Md€) au financement de la recherche et du transfert de technologie (R&T). Ces financements concernent en premier lieu des opérations immobilières et de transfert de technologie. Les conseils régionaux pèsent pour 68 % de ces financements. Les établissements publics de coopération intercommunale (EPCI) développent leur participation [Consult the following page in french]


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