Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Insee
Ministry of the Interior, DGCL.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France or whole of France, dependng on type of data.

The data presented here are taken from the annual survey conducted by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) on local authorities’ R&T budgets. They are based on actual expenditure and as such are final figures, with the exception of those for the 2014 financial year (which are semi-finalised).

Only self-financing local authorities were included in the survey, namely, regional and departmental councils, certain EPCIs (metropolitan areas, urban communities, conurbation communities, communities of municipalities and intermunicipal new town consortia) and a sample group of municipal councils. The Corsican local authority and Mayotte departmental council, as well as the governments of French Polynesia and New Caledonia, were classified as regional councils, while the governments of the three provinces of New Caledonia were classified as departmental councils.

The term ‘research and technology’ (R&T) covers all activities that aim to expand research and development (R&D) carried out by dedicated state research institutions and public services, as well as supporting R&D and innovation among businesses, promoting technology transfer and research findings and cultivating a scientific and technical culture.

The total actual expenditure of French regions is taken from their administrative accounts, which are held by the Directorate-General for Local Authorities (DGCL).

2010 is the base year for the national GDP used (source: Insee). Figures ‘in real terms’ are adjusted to take account of inflation, with changes in prices calculated using the GDP deflator.

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32 funding of research and technology by local authorities

In 2014, local authorities devoted €1.3 billion to funding research and technology (R&T). This funding went in large part towards property transactions and technology transfer and innovation. Regional councils accounted for two-thirds of R&T funding, while municipalities were the second local contributor.

In 2014, the R&T budget for local authorities accounted for 8% (€1.26 billion) of all State funding for R&D (table 32.01). Regional councils were the main source of local funding, accounting for two-thirds of the local R&T budget. The proportion of departmental funding was 15% and the proportion of funding contributed by municipal councils and public establishments for cooperation between local authorities (EPCI) was 19%. The vast majority of municipal councils transferred their powers in this area to intermunicipal organisations: 17% of local funding for R&T came from EPCIs. In 2015, twelve metropolitan areas in France (Brest, Bordeaux, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, Montpellier, Nantes, Nice, Rennes, Rouen, Strasbourg and Toulouse) contributed half of the forecast R&T expenditure from EPCIs. The French Overseas departments and territories contributed 2.6% to local R&T funding.

R&T funding was spent first and foremost on property transactions, which accounted for 36% on average per year of the R&T budget in the 2012-2014 period. Property transactions even accounted for over half of the R&T deals that fell under the state-region project contracts (CPER) (62% in 2012, 50% in 2014, the transition year to the new CPER). Over these three years, technology transfer (research in partnership, research commercialisation systems and other innovation aids) absorbed on average 29% of the annual R&T budget. 31% of R&T funding went towards public research (excluding property transactions), i.e. €377 million, with 13% used to support R&D projects, 8% spent on laboratory equipment and 10% on supporting researchers. Finally, 5% of funding was used to share and promote scientific culture and broadband networks designed to support research (chart 32.02).

The transition to the new state-region project contracts was gradual: although CPER funding for local R&T activities was €274m in 2014, only 4% at this stage was used to produce the new 2014-2020 CPER, with 95% relating to the 2007-2013 CPER and 1% to the 2000-2006 CPER.

In metropolitan France, during 2008 and 2009, the Regional councils provided specific support for R&T in terms of their overall budget (chart 32.03). From 2010 to 2014, their annual amount of expenditure on R&T was relatively stable, close to €800 million.

Regional funding for R&T can also be assessed by studying the amount spent on research as a proportion of the regional economy. R&T expenditure as a proportion of the total expenditure of a particular regional council is compared with regional business enterprise (BERD) and government (GOVERD) expenditure on R&D as a proportion of that region’s GDP. Each region is therefore compared against the national situation (chart 32.04).

In 2014, the GERD of metropolitan France accounted for 2.3% of its GDP, while funding for R&T contributed by all regional councils within metropolitan France accounted for 2.9% of their total actual expenditure. Eight of the thirteen regions contributed more than the average for metropolitan France for one or the other indicator. Only the Occitanie region contributed double the metropolitan average. The aggregated responses for 2014 from regional councils, according to the new regional scope, showed a smaller disparity between regional efforts than previously, both in terms of funding for R&T and the performance of R&D.

&

 Coverage:Metropolitan France or whole of France, dependng on type of data.

How to cite this paper :

NISSLÉ Claudette-Vincent, PERRAIN Laurent. Funding of research and technology by local authorities. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 32 [Accessed 04/25/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_R_32-funding_of_research_and_technology_by_local_authorities.php

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The data presented here are taken from the annual survey conducted by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) on local authorities’ R&T budgets. They are based on actual expenditure and as such are final figures, with the exception of those for the 2014 financial year (which are semi-finalised).

Only self-financing local authorities were included in the survey, namely, regional and departmental councils, certain EPCIs (metropolitan areas, urban communities, conurbation communities, communities of municipalities and intermunicipal new town consortia) and a sample group of municipal councils. The Corsican local authority and Mayotte departmental council, as well as the governments of French Polynesia and New Caledonia, were classified as regional councils, while the governments of the three provinces of New Caledonia were classified as departmental councils.

The term ‘research and technology’ (R&T) covers all activities that aim to expand research and development (R&D) carried out by dedicated state research institutions and public services, as well as supporting R&D and innovation among businesses, promoting technology transfer and research findings and cultivating a scientific and technical culture.

The total actual expenditure of French regions is taken from their administrative accounts, which are held by the Directorate-General for Local Authorities (DGCL).

2010 is the base year for the national GDP used (source: Insee). Figures ‘in real terms’ are adjusted to take account of inflation, with changes in prices calculated using the GDP deflator.

 

Key figures


Budget of Departmental councils devoted to R&T
192.2 M
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: budget achieved
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Budget of municipalities and Public establishments for cooperation between local authorities (EPCI) devoted to R&T
209.7 M
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: budget achieved
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Budget of Regional councils devoted to R&T
831.7 M
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: budget achieved
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to equipment for public laboratories
7.9%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to public research projects
12.8%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to support for researchers
10.1%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to technology transfer and innovation
28.6%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to broadband networks
1.5%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to the dissemination of scientific culture
3.0%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T budget of territorial authorities devoted to property transactions
36.1%
 
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Coverage: average
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of R&T in total expenditure by Regional councils
2.9%
 
2014
Metropolitan France
 
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Extract from the chapter "32. funding of research and technology by local authorities".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

32.01 R&T budget for local authorities from 2012 to 2014 (actual expenditure, €M)

 
2012 2013 2014 1
Total R&T budget 1,214.0 1,198.7 1,258.4
expenditure under the CPER 370.7 311.4 265.0
Regional councils 825.4 771.6 831.7
Departmental councils 199.3 180.5 192.2
EPCI 165.1 217.5 209.7
Municipal councils 24.1 29.1 24.7
 

1 Semi-finalised data.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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32.02 Breakdown of funding allocated to each objective in the R&T budget of local authorities (average from 2012 to 2014, in %)

  
Undefined
Sharing and promoting scientific culture
Broadband networks
Technology transfers / innovation
Support for researchers
Public research projects
Equipment for laboratories
Property transactions
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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32.03 Regional councils in metropolitan France - R&T budget and changes in the R&T budget and total expenditure from 2007 to 2014 (€M, %)

2006
 
2008
2010
2012
 
2014
 
2007
2009
2011
2013
 
R&T budget for regional councils in metropolitan France (in current €M)
Changes in the amount of the R&T budget spent / n-1 (%)
Changes in the amount of total actual expenditure 1 / n-1 (%)
 
 

2010 is used as the base year for national GDP (Insee).
1 The total actual expenditure of regional councils is taken from their administrative accounts, held by the Directorate-General for Local Authorities (DGCL).

 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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32.04 Regional funding for performing and financing R&D in 2014

  
Paris basin East-Rhône-Alpes
Paris basin-Franche-Comté
West
Paris basin-Val de Loire
Mediterranean
Grand Est
Hauts-de-France
Île-de-France
Normandie
Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Occitanie
Metropolitan France
 
 

2005 is the base year for regional GDP.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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Related statistical publications

 Note d'information SIES 16.07 - Le financement territorial de la R&T au cours de l'acte II de la décentralisation (2004-2014) - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé, Laurent Perrain - September 2016
Après une forte croissance de 2004 à 2009, les dépenses des collectivités territoriales en faveur de la recherche et du transfert de technologie (R&T), se stabilisent à 1,2 milliard d’euros (Md€) par an jusqu’en 2014. 28 % de ces financements sont inscrits aux contrats de projets/ plan État-Région.

Le partage des compétences entre niveaux territoriaux, inscrit dans les lois relatives à la décentralisation – acte II -, explique la prédominance des régions : deux tiers du budget R&T annuel. Le niveau communal, par l’intermédiaire des intercommunalités qui se structurent, voit sa part augmenter progressivement. Dans une stratégie d’attractivité et de développement économique du territoire, les opérations immobilières et de transfert et aides à l’innovation des entreprises englobent 60 % du budget R&T.

L’effort des collectivités en faveur de la R&T, 19 € par habitant à partir de 2009, est réparti sur la France entière. L’organisation entre les niveaux territoriaux reste cependant propre à chaque région.
 Recherche et Transfert de technologie, Enseignement supérieur et Vie étudiante - Le financement par les collectivités territorialesFunding of research and technology transfer by territorial authorities - Survey carried out in 2015 - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé, Laurent Perrain - March 2016
Research & development and technology transfer activities (R&T) are recognised as a necessary factor in economic growth. Local authorities, in particular regional authorities, make a significant contribution to creating and extending an environment that is favourable to innovation. Research funding by the various levels of local authority is generally modest compared to State budget expenditure in this area (8% of public funding). However, a continual effort is made to promote innovation and technology transfer at local level. In 2014, the budgets declared for R&T therefore amounted to €1.3 billion.

The amount budgeted by local authorities for R&T is guided by the national and European territorial planning policy through the State-region project contracts (CPER). It is also guided by the Competitiveness Clusters policy, and more recently by the Investing for the Future Programmes (Programmes Investissements d’Avenir - PIA). Similarly, in the context of the ERDF regional operational programmes, the European policy of support for innovation and economic cohesion has firstly led to the production of Regional Innovation Strategies (SRI) and, since 2014, Intelligent Specialisation Strategies (3S), which promote intelligent, sustainable, inclusive growth.
 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 02 - Local authority funding of R&T: €1.3 billion in 2014 - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé, Laurent Perrain - February 2016
On average, this budget represents €19 per citizen. Although the regions are the main contributors (66%), the departments (15%), municipalities and inter-municipal institutions (19%) also devote a substantial budget to R&T. Property transactions account for 36% of R&T funding, half of which goes on State-region project contracts (CPER).


Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
33 - funding of research and technology by local authorities - Laurent Perrain
In 2014, local authorities devoted €1.3 billion to funding research and technology (R&T). This funding went in large part towards property transactions and technology transfer and innovation. Regional councils accounted for two-thirds of R&T funding, while municipalities were the second local contributor [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
32 - funding of research and technology by local authorities - Laurent Perrain
In 2013, local authorities devoted €1.3 billion to funding research and technology (R&T). This funding went in large part towards property and technology transfer transactions. Regional councils accounted for 68% of this funding, while public establishments for cooperation between local authorities increased their contribution [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°10 - Avril 2017
32 - le financement de la R&T par les Collectivités Territoriales - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé & Laurent Perrain
En 2014, les collectivités territoriales consacrent 1,3 Md€ au financement de la recherche et du transfert de technologie (R&T). Ces financements concernent en premier lieu des opérations immobilières et de transfert de technologie et de l’innovation. Les régions apportent les deux tiers de ces financements R&T. Le niveau communal est le second interlocuteur local [Consult the following page in french]


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