Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:Céreq.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France.

The data presented in this page come from the Generation 1998, 2004 and 2010 surveys. The data was collected from cohorts of people leaving the education system three years after leaving. The various surveys were made comparable and the final sample is ultimately made up of 63,177 individuals representative of 1,028,000 young people leaving higher education, 359,000 in 1998, 323,500 in 2004 and 345,500 in 2010.

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23 evolution of the first 3 years' career experience of young people from Génération 1998 to Génération 2010

There has been a significant increase in the education level of young people entering the labour market in twenty years. But despite the overall downturn in access conditions to the labour market caused by the 2008 crisis, a qualification continues to provide protection from the risks of unemployment.

Between 2001 and 2013, the unemployment rate of higher education leavers after two years in the workforce doubled. It settled at 13% in 2013 (table 23.01). This growth has been accompanied by a falling unemployment rate and rise in inactivity spurred by more students resuming their studies. The rise in the unemployment rate affected the Generation 2010 especially, who suffered the effects of a lasting situation exacerbated by the 2008 economic crisis. The proportion of the most qualified jobs increased (+6 points of managerial job) whilst the proportion of stable jobs held thanks to the rise in unwaged employment (table 23.02).

Access conditions for young people leaving without a higher education qualification plummeted between 2001 and 2013: 23% of these active young people were unemployed three years after leaving the education system compared with 10% in 2001. By comparison with young graduates of higher education, they are also the largest group to resume studies and their number is growing (+13 points between the Generations 1998 and 2010). In addition, young people leaving without a qualification who are in employment after three years in the workforce enjoy less favourable integration conditions of all leavers. Apart from remuneration, these conditions worsened slightly over the generations, as shown by the increased share of part-time jobs (+9 points).

At Bac + 2 level (excluding social healthcare), the unemployment rate at three years has also increased very significantly between the three generations (+9 points). Conversely, employment conditions for young people with jobs have remained relatively stable. In addition, the advantage of industrial specialisms in the labour market is sustained from one generation to the next. The differences seen between industrial and service specialisms have even widened between 2001 and 2013, whether they involve the unemployment rate, the share of stable jobs and the share of part-time employment.

The structure of the level Bac + 3 changed radically between the Generations 1998 and 2010 with the introduction of vocational Bachelor degrees in 1999. The result was a growth in more moderate unemployment among the workforce at this degree level between 2001 and 2013 (+4 points) compared with other levels. Employment conditions for Bac + 3 holders were also more favourable during this period, especially the stable employment rate and monthly remuneration. However, the increase in unemployment accelerated between 2007 and 2013, mainly for the holders of a vocational Bachelor degree.

The level Bac + 5 structure also changed considerably between the Generations 1998 and 2010 following the move to the Bachelor, Master’s, PhD cycle. The combined effects of the economic crisis and the increased number of graduates at this level were both responsible for the upsurge in the unemployment rate between the Generations 2004 and 2010, mainly for the Bac + 5 university graduates in the grouped specialisms of human and social sciences and business school graduates. Although the qualification level of jobs held was stable between 2001 and 2013, the share of stable jobs fell (-5 points), just like the median monthly remuneration (-210 euros).

After three years in the workforce and despite the 2008 economic crisis, the unemployment rate of PhD graduates from Generation 2010 was 5%, lower than for Generation 2004 (-2 points). The share of managerial jobs held by employed PhD graduates remained stable and high; their median remuneration showed no signs of weakening and, for Generation 2010, was substantially above the salaries paid to Bac + 5 graduates. Nevertheless, the share of stable jobs that were traditionally lower than for Bac +5 graduates due to the distinctive feature of careers in research, dropped by eight points.

Between Generations 2001 and 2013, and after three years in the workforce, the differences in median remuneration between the various higher education qualifications became blurred (chart 23.03). Levels Bac + 4 and above all Bac + 5 graduates no longer have as high a remuneration difference as in the past compared with other young graduates. Nevertheless, there was a rise in the median remuneration level for all qualifications between 2001 and 2013, which can be attributed to a structural effect, as the numbers of Bac + 5 graduates were proportionally greater.

📄 Sources:Céreq.
 Coverage:Metropolitan France.

How to cite this paper :

MÉNARD Boris. Evolution of the first 3 years' career experience of young people from Génération 1998 to Génération 2010. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 23 [Accessed 07/18/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_ES_23-evolution_of_the_first_3_years_career_experience_of_young_people_from_generation_1998_to_generation_2010-ILL_01.php

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The data presented in this page come from the Generation 1998, 2004 and 2010 surveys. The data was collected from cohorts of people leaving the education system three years after leaving. The various surveys were made comparable and the final sample is ultimately made up of 63,177 individuals representative of 1,028,000 young people leaving higher education, 359,000 in 1998, 323,500 in 2004 and 345,500 in 2010.

 

Key figures


Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with a PhD
5.1%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "23. evolution of the first 3 years' career experience of young people from Génération 1998 to Génération 2010".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with no diploma
23%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "23. evolution of the first 3 years' career experience of young people from Génération 1998 to Génération 2010".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with a business school diploma
9.4%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "23. evolution of the first 3 years' career experience of young people from Génération 1998 to Génération 2010".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq
Unemployment rate for young people leaving higher education with an engineering school diploma
3.5%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "23. evolution of the first 3 years' career experience of young people from Génération 1998 to Génération 2010".

Coverage: 3 years after leaving the education system
Source: Céreq

23.01 Situation of young people three years after leaving the education system in 1998, 2004 and 2010 by type of qualification (main indicators) (%)

 
Generation 1998 Generation 2004 Generation 2010
Proportion of young people in employment (%) Unemployment rate (%) Inactivity rate (excluding studies) (%) Resumption of studies/training rate (%) Unemployment rate (%) Inactivity rate (excluding studies) (%) Resumption of studies/training rate (%) Unemployment rate (%) Inactivity rate (excluding studies) (%) Resumption of studies/training rate (%)
Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification 86 8.1 5 2 78 13.3 10 7 68 22.1 13 9
Those who left a BTS/DUT without obtaining a qualificatio 72 11.9 8 3 62 17.9 24 20 56 23.7 26 21
those who left a higher education course without obtaining a qualification 78 10.2 7 3 69 15.8 18 14 61 23 21 16
DEUG 83 9 5 3 76 8.5 17 15
Industrial BTS/DUT 92 4 3 1 90 6.2 4 3 82 11.9 7 5
Tertiary BTS/DUT 91 5.9 3 1 84 9.8 7 6 77 16.2 8 6
Bac + 2 90 5.6 3 1 85 8.4 7 6 79 14.6 8 6
Bac + 2 health and social care 96 1.1 2 0 97 1.5 2 0 96 1.8 2 1
Vocational Bachelor's degree (Licence professionnelle) 91 5.2 4 3 85 9.8 6 5
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale) Sciences 87 6.6 3 0 80 4.9 16 10 75 8.5 18 14
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale) Humanity and Social sciences 83 8.5 5 3 72 12.9 17 13 68 15.3 20 16
Bachelor's degree 84 8.2 5 2 79 9.2 13 9 76 11.9 13 11
First year of a Master's degree 85 9 4 1 82 10.8 8 5 79 13.3 9 7
Master's Sciences 92 5.3 2 0 89 6.7 4 3 85 9.5 6 3
Master's Social sciences 90 6.1 4 1 90 5.6 4 2 84 12.7 4 3
Business schools Bac + 5 94 3.3 2 0 94 5 1 0 89 9.4 1 1
Engineering schools Bac + 5 96 2.8 1 0 94 3.1 3 1 95 3.5 2 1
Master's and other Bac +5 courses 93 4.5 2 0 91 5.1 4 2 87 9.7 4 2
PhD 94 3.7 2 0 90 7.3 3 1 93 5.1 2 1
Those who left higher education 87 6.6 4 2 83 8.8 9 7 78 13 10 7

 
📄 Sources:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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23.02 Types of employment contract, share of part-time employment in jobs held three years after leaving higher education by young people leaving the education system in 1998, 2004 and 2010 (%)

 
Generation 1998 Generation 2004 Generation 2010
Permanent employment rates (%) 1 Share of managers (%) Share of technicians and associated professionals (%) Share of part-time employment (%) Permanent employment rates (%) 1 Share of managers (%) Share of technicians and associated professionals (%) Share of part-time employment (%) Permanent employment rates (%) 1 Share of managers (%) Share of technicians and associated professionals (%) Share of part-time employment (%)
Those who left a Bachelor's degree course (Licence) without obtaining a qualification 50 3 39 16 52 4 37 23 48 6 33 24
Those who left a BTS/DUT without obtaining a qualificatio 64 3 32 9 65 4 35 11 62 6 31 18
those who left a higher education course without obtaining a qualification 56 3 36 13 58 4 36 17 54 6 32 22
DEUG 65 9 43 15 67 11 52 17 . . . .
Industrial BTS/DUT 76 7 61 2 73 6 56 4 75 7 56 4
Tertiary BTS/DUT 75 8 46 6 73 8 47 10 69 13 42 14
Bac + 2 74 8 51 6 72 7 51 9 71 11 47 10
Bac + 2 health and social care 75 1 98 9 83 0 98 11 83 1 97 10
Vocational Bachelor's degree (Licence professionnelle) . . . . 82 14 68 3 77 16 61 5
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale) Sciences 79 23 58 8 68 16 66 16 73 20 58 15
General Bachelor's degree (Licence générale) Humanity and Social sciences 64 18 48 14 64 12 60 25 68 18 45 19
Bachelor's degree 66 19 50 13 71 13 64 16 73 17 54 12
First year of a Master's degree 75 39 39 7 71 31 50 11 72 38 45 11
Master's Sciences 84 78 16 6 79 71 25 4 80 70 25 6
Master's Social sciences 78 62 27 9 77 59 31 9 73 60 28 10
Business schools Bac + 5 93 78 19 2 94 66 27 2 94 67 26 2
Engineering schools Bac + 5 94 91 7 1 91 87 11 2 93 88 10 1
Master's and other Bac +5 courses 86 76 18 5 84 70 24 5 81 69 23 6
PhD 79 94 4 14 72 91 7 13 71 96 3 11
Those who left higher education 72 26 42 8 73 24 47 11 72 32 40 11
 

1 In employment on a permanent contract, as a civil servant or a self-employed worker.

📄 Sources:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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23.03 Net monthly median salary three years after leaving higher education (in constant euros, july 2015) (in €)

Those who left a higher education course without obtaining a qualification
Bac + 2
Bac + 2 Health and social care
Bachelor's degree
First year of a Master's degree
Master's degree university and schools
PhD
Those who left higher education
  
Generation 1998
Generation 2004
Generation 2010
 
 
📄 Sources:Céreq
 Coverage: Metropolitan France.

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Related statistical publications

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Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°10 - Avril 2017
23 - évolution de l'insertion à 3 ans des sortants de l'enseignement supérieur, de la Génération 1998 à la Génération 2010 - Boris Ménard
En 20 ans, le niveau de formation des jeunes entrant sur le marché du travail a fortement progressé. Mais, si la crise de 2008 a globalement dégradé les conditions d’accès au marché du travail, le diplôme conserve son caractère protecteur contre les risques de chômag [Consult the following page in french]


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