Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
OECD.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

In the public sector, the following are identified as researchers: civil servants with the profession of research director, University professors, research fellows and senior lecturers; non-permanent staff recruited at a level equivalent to the professions mentioned above; staff under private status (e.g. in State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC)) whose duties are equivalent to those of civil servants as mentioned above; research engineers and equivalent groups; doctoral students funded to complete their thesis; temporary research and teaching assistants (ATER).

In business enterprises, R&D researchers and engineers are scientists and engineers engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems.

Ancillary research staff are all personnel who are not researchers and who contribute to carrying out R&D projects or who are directly associated with this work: technicians and equivalent staff, clerical staff and secretarial staff. Staff are distributed in one or more branches of economic activity where R&D is carried out. These 32 research branches are based on the French classification of economic activities (NAF rev.2).

Full-time equivalent researchers (FTE): to correctly evaluate the human potential in R&D, it is necessary to consider the annual full-time equivalent number of researchers, in order to take account of part-timers and researchers with multiple activities (research, teaching, treatment, etc.).

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35 human resources in research and development

In 2014, over half a million people were involved in research activity in France. Women represented 30% of all research personnel and 26% of researchers. The number of researchers, 266,700 full-time equivalent (FTE) in 2014, has increased by 15% in five years. The number of researchers increased more rapidly in business enterprises (21%) than in government (6%) over the period 2009-2014.

In 2014, 575,800 people in France were involved in research-related activity. They represented 417,100 full-time equivalents (FTE), an increase of 7.6% in 5 years (table 35.01). The number of researchers increased by 14.6% in 5 years, from 232,800 FTE in 2009 to 266,700 FTE in 2014. The number of ancillary staff fell, however (-3.0% over 5 years). Researchers accounted for 64% of research staff in 2014, and the 'ancillary staff to researcher' ratio stood at 0.56 in 2014 compared to 0.67 in 2009.

In 2014, business enterprises employed 161,800 FTE researchers. These numbers had increased 21% since 2009. In the government sector, researcher numbers had grown less rapidly (+5.9% in 5 years) and stood at 104,900 FTE.

Since 2002, researchers in business enterprises have outnumbered those in government and in 2014 they represented 61% of all researchers.

Almost half of all research personnel in business enterprises (49%) are concentrated in five of the 32 branches of research (chart 35.02): 'Computer-related and information service activities' (12%), 'Manufacture of motor vehicles' (11%), 'Specialised scientific and technical activities' (10%), 'Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery' (10%), 'Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation; watches and clocks' (7%) (chart 35.02). Between 2009 and 2014, the number of researchers in the service branches increased 4 times more (+48%) than those working in industrial branches (+11%) and the "primary, energy and construction" branches (+14%).

The proportion of women working in research was 30% in 2014. This figure is lower for researchers (26%) than for ancillary staff (38%). It is also lower in business enterprises (22%) than in the government sector (42%).

In government, more than three out of four research personnel have permanent posts. There is a greater proportion of permanent staff among ancillary staff (88%) than among researchers (71%), as some researchers are doctoral students (chart 35.03).

In not-for-profit institutions, only 63% of research staff and 42% of researchers hold permanent posts.

Within the European Union, France is in second place for the number of researchers (FTE), behind Germany. The United Kingdom is in third position. At global level, the European Union is ranked first, with 1.7 million FTE researchers, ahead of China (1.4 million) and the United States (1.3 million).

In relation to the active population, France had 9.3 researchers per thousand workers in 2014, behind South Korea and Japan, but ahead of the United States, Germany and the United Kingdom (chart 35.04). Several less populated countries rank among the world leaders, especially Israel, Finland, Taiwan and Sweden.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

DAVID Catherine. Human resources in research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 35 [Accessed 06/19/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_R_35-human_resources_in_research_and_development.php

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In the public sector, the following are identified as researchers: civil servants with the profession of research director, University professors, research fellows and senior lecturers; non-permanent staff recruited at a level equivalent to the professions mentioned above; staff under private status (e.g. in State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC)) whose duties are equivalent to those of civil servants as mentioned above; research engineers and equivalent groups; doctoral students funded to complete their thesis; temporary research and teaching assistants (ATER).

In business enterprises, R&D researchers and engineers are scientists and engineers engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems.

Ancillary research staff are all personnel who are not researchers and who contribute to carrying out R&D projects or who are directly associated with this work: technicians and equivalent staff, clerical staff and secretarial staff. Staff are distributed in one or more branches of economic activity where R&D is carried out. These 32 research branches are based on the French classification of economic activities (NAF rev.2).

Full-time equivalent researchers (FTE): to correctly evaluate the human potential in R&D, it is necessary to consider the annual full-time equivalent number of researchers, in order to take account of part-timers and researchers with multiple activities (research, teaching, treatment, etc.).

 

Key figures


Number of ancillary research staff and researchers
575,800
 people (headcount)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: headcount
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of ancillary research staff in government
64,205
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of ancillary research staff
150,478
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises
161,769
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Number of researchers in government
104,949
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of ancillary research staff and researchers
417,195
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of ancillary research staff in business enterprises
86,272
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers
266,717
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Number of researchers in business enterprises in the Industrial branches
103,718
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in the Services branches
52,483
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
9,615
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in Specialist scientific and technical activities
16,135
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Number of researchers in business enterprises in Aeronautics and space construction
15,801
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in the Automobile industry
17,327
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in Information technology and computer service activities
19,318
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in the Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
11,014
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Number of researchers in business enterprises in Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
8,598
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in the Manufacture of communication equipment
7,785
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of researchers in business enterprises in the Pharmaceutical industry
9,136
 people (FTE)
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of researchers in the labour force
9.3
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "35. human resources in research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

35.01 R&D personnel (FTE)

 
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 1 Change 2009/2014 (%)
Research personnel (researchers and ancillary staff) 379,006 382,652 387,847 397,756 402,492 411,780 416,687 417,195 +7.6
State 163,115 162,636 161,956 162,168 163,380 165,342 166,696 169,154 +4.4
État 2 87,162 84,819 84,047 83,431 82,820 82,683 82,362 81,783 -2.7
Higher education 70,161 72,197 71,782 73,079 74,756 76,015 77,503 80,069 +11.5
NPI 5,792 5,620 6,127 5,659 5,804 6,644 6,831 7,302 +19.2
Business enterprises 215,891 220,016 225,891 235,588 239,111 246,438 249,991 248,041 +9.8
Researchers 221,851 227,678 232,764 243,533 249,247 258,913 265,466 266,717 +14.6
Government 97,274 99,305 99,063 99,705 100,807 102,521 104,006 104,949 +5.9
State 2 44,317 45,719 45,819 45,615 45,707 46,260 46,569 46,226 +0.9
Higher education 49,661 50,550 49,977 51,291 52,270 53,043 54,073 55,168 +10.4
NPI 3,296 3,036 3,267 2,799 2,830 3,218 3,364 3,554 +8.8
Business enterprises 124,577 128,373 133,701 143,828 148,439 156,392 161,460 161,769 +21.0
Ancillary staff 157,155 154,974 155,083 154,223 153,245 152,867 151,221 150,478 -3.0
Government 65,841 63,331 62,893 62,463 62,573 62,821 62,690 64,205 +2.1
State 2 42,845 39,100 38,228 37,816 37,112 36,423 35,794 35,557 -7.0
Higher education 20,500 21,647 21,805 21,788 22,486 22,972 23,429 24,900 +14.2
NPI 2,496 2,584 2,860 2,859 2,975 3,426 3,467 3,748 +31.0
Business enterprises 91,314 91,643 92,190 91,760 90,672 90,047 88,531 86,272 -6.4
 

Break in series. From 2010, a change in methodology resulted in a reduction of around 6,000 FTE in government.
1 Semi-finalised data.
2 Including the French national centre for scientific research (CNRS).

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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35.02 Number of researchers per research branch in 2009 and 2014 1 (FTE)

Total manufacturing industry
Manufacture of motor vehicles
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery
Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
Manufacture of communication equipment
Other industrial branches
Total services
Computer and information services
Specialised, scientific and technical activities
Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
Other service branches
  
2009
2014
Industrial branches
Service branches
 
 

1 Semi-finalised data.
The data on the graph show staff numbers in the 10 largest branches of research in terms of researchers in 2014. The other 22 branches are grouped together under the headings 'Other industrial branches' and 'Other service branches'.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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35.03 Breakdown of permanent staff among public sector and NPI R&D personnel in 2014 1 (%)

NPI
higher education 3
State 2
Government
  
All
Researchers
Ancillary staff
 
 

1 Semi-finalised data.
2 Including the French national centre for scientific research (CNRS).
3 Staff who are paid out of own funds are counted only in the 103 institutions with wider responsibilities and capacities in 2014. Doctoral students receiving pay and temporary research and teaching assistants (ATER) are counted in all institutions.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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35.04 Researchers as a proportion of the labour force in 2014 (in ‰)

IL 1
 
DK
SE
JP
BE
NL
DE
CA 3
PT
RU
IT
TR
 
CN
 
FI
KR
TW
AT
FR 2
GB
US 3
OECD 3
EU28 4
ES
PL
AR
 
 
 

The 25 countries shown are those with the most FTE researchers in 2014.
1 2012 data.
2 Semi-finalised data.
3 2013 data.
4 OECD estimates.

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Related statistical publications

 Note d'information SIES 16.12 - Dépenses de recherche et développement en France - Résultats détaillés pour 2014 et premières estimations pour 2015 - Philippe Roussel, Camille Schweitzer - December 2016
En 2014, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement (DIRD) s’établit à 47,9 milliards d’euros (Md€), en hausse de 0,6 % en volume par rapport à 2013. L’augmentation de la DIRD résulte de la progression des dépenses de recherche et développement (R&D) des entreprises (+ 1,2 %), mais est modérée par une légère diminution des dépenses des administrations (- 0,4 %). Les activités de R&D dans les entreprises et les administrations mobilisent 417 200 personnes, en équivalent temps plein. L’effort de recherche de la nation, mesuré en rapportant la DIRD au produit intérieur brut (PIB), se maintient à 2,24 % en 2014. Il pourrait légèrement diminuer en 2015, pour atteindre 2,23 %. En effet, l’évolution de la DIRD devrait accélérer (+ 0,9 % en volume, estimation) grâce à la progression de la DIRD des entreprises et des administrations, mais moins rapidement que le PIB (+ 1,3 %).
 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 13 - L'emploi scientifique dans les organismes de recherche en 2015 - Louis Meuric - October 2016
Les statistiques sur l’emploi sont issues de deux sources : le nouveau Tableau de bord, enquête simplifiée administrée à partir de 2014 aux 16 principaux organismes de recherche, complétée les années antérieures par l’enquête annuelle sur la R&D


Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
36 - human resources in research and development - Catherine David
In 2013, over half a million people were involved in research activity in France. Women represented 30% of all research personnel and 26% of researchers. The number of researchers, 266,200 full-time equivalent (FTE) in 2013, has increased by 17% in five years. The number of researchers increased more rapidly in business enterprises (26%) than in government (5%) over the period 2008-2013 [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
35 - human resources in research and development - Odile Wolber
In 2012, 564,500 people were involved in research activity in France. In the last three years, the number of researchers has increased more rapidly in business enterprises (+16%) than in government (+2%). Women represent 29% of all research personnel and 26% of researchers [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°10 - Avril 2017
35 - les moyens humains de la recherche et développement - Catherine David
En 2014, plus d’un demi-million de personnes participent à l’activité de recherche en France. Les femmes représentent 30 % de l’ensemble du personnel de recherche et 26 % des chercheurs. Le nombre de chercheurs, 266 700 en équivalent temps plein en 2014, a progressé de 15 % en cinq ans. Le nombre de chercheurs a progressé plus vite dans les entreprises (+ 21 %) que dans les administrations (+ 6 %) sur la période 2009-2014 [Consult the following page in french]


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