Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
OECD.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

The data for France are obtained from annual surveys by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) on R&D expenditure. The survey covers 11,000 businesses (private and public) and government bodies (universities and other higher education institutions), public research bodies (State-owned scientific and technological establishments (EPST), State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC)) and other public institutions, government departments (including defence), university hospitals and comprehensive cancer centres, not-for-profit institutions (NPI)).

Research personnel includes researchers and ancillary research staff (according to the definitions in the |Frascati Manual|http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/frascatimanualproposedstandardpracticeforsurveysonresearchandexperimentaldevelopment6thedition.htm|To the Frascati Manual on the OECD website|).

R&D researchers are specialists engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems. Also included are doctoral students with funding (including those with an Industrial Agreement for Training through Research (CIFRE)) and staff responsible for managing research teams.

Research ancillary staff include technicians who participate in R&D, carrying out scientific and technical tasks under the supervision of researchers, workers assigned to R&D work and staff working on administrative tasks linked with R&D work.

The numbers shown, as a headcount, corresponds to staff on 31 December of the year of reference, regardless of their share of R&D work.

The headcount data are not available for some OECD countries, such as Canada and the United States.

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36 gender equality in research

In 2014, women represented 30% of all research personnel, and a little over a quarter of researchers. Furthermore, 36% of government research personnel are women compared to 20% in business enterprises, a contrast that is not unique to France. The proportions differ according to the field of research, with the most women being present in medicine, chemistry and agronomy.

In 2014, 576,000 people in France were participating in R&D activities and of these research personnel, 30% were women (table 36.01). They were better represented in government (42%) (public bodies, higher education institutions and not-for-profit institutions) than in business enterprises (22%).

Proportionally fewer women work in researcher positions (26%) than as research ancillary staff (38% female). This contrast in female presence with regard to the qualifications of R&D personnel is greater in government than in business enterprises. In government, the proportion of women in ancillary roles is 53% compared to 36% for researchers, whereas these proportions are 27% and 20% respectively in businesses.

The male-female ratio varies according to the research field. The proportion of women is greater in medicine, chemistry and agronomy, natural outlets for their educational training, than in aerospace, automotive and digital technologies. In 2014, therefore, there were equal numbers of men and women in research teams at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), the Institut Pasteur and the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA) (chart 36.02).

In contrast, they represented less than 20% of researchers at the French National Aerospace Research Centre (ONERA) and at the French National Institute for Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (INRIA). In business enterprises, there are more female than male researchers in 'Pharmacy' (58%), whereas their numbers are nearly equal in 'Chemistry' (46%) (chart 36.03). However, women are poorly represented in 'Aeronautics and space construction' (16%), 'IT activities' and 'Manufacturing of motor vehicles' (13%) and 'Manufacture of machines and equipment' (8%).

Au cours de la décennie 2004-2014, la place des femmes parmi les chercheurs diminue d’environ 1,5 point de pourcentage (à champ constant). Il faut néanmoins être prudent quant à l’interprétation. En effet, la part des femmes s’accroit sur cette période dans les administrations et se maintient à un même niveau dans les entreprises. This phenomenon is due to a structural effect: the increasing weight of business enterprises in relation to government, combined with a lower proportion of women in business compared to government.

These trends in France are similar to those observed in other OECD countries. Everywhere, we see an under-representation of women in research teams, especially in business enterprises (chart 36.04). Portugal, Estonia and Slovakia, however, have near equality between men and women. In these countries, women represent more than 40% of all researchers. In these three countries, at least 70% of researchers work in the State or higher education sectors. In contrast, in Japan, South Korea, the Netherlands and France, women represent 15%, 18%, 23% and 26% of researchers respectively. In each of these countries, 60% of researchers or more work in business enterprises.

&

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

BOINET Alexis, PERRAIN Laurent. Gender equality in research. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 36 [Accessed 06/19/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_R_36-gender_equality_in_research.php

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The data for France are obtained from annual surveys by the French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) on R&D expenditure. The survey covers 11,000 businesses (private and public) and government bodies (universities and other higher education institutions), public research bodies (State-owned scientific and technological establishments (EPST), State-owned industrial and commercial establishments (EPIC)) and other public institutions, government departments (including defence), university hospitals and comprehensive cancer centres, not-for-profit institutions (NPI)).

Research personnel includes researchers and ancillary research staff (according to the definitions in the |Frascati Manual|http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/frascatimanualproposedstandardpracticeforsurveysonresearchandexperimentaldevelopment6thedition.htm|To the Frascati Manual on the OECD website|).

R&D researchers are specialists engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems. Also included are doctoral students with funding (including those with an Industrial Agreement for Training through Research (CIFRE)) and staff responsible for managing research teams.

Research ancillary staff include technicians who participate in R&D, carrying out scientific and technical tasks under the supervision of researchers, workers assigned to R&D work and staff working on administrative tasks linked with R&D work.

The numbers shown, as a headcount, corresponds to staff on 31 December of the year of reference, regardless of their share of R&D work.

The headcount data are not available for some OECD countries, such as Canada and the United States.

 

Key figures


Share of women among researchers in business enterprises
20.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in government
35.8%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)
47.4%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French research institute for the exploitation of the sea (IFREMER)
35.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Share of women among researchers at the Institute of Research for Development (IRD)
34.8%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French Agricultural Research and International Cooperation Organisation (CIRAD)
37.7%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS)
34.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French National Aerospace Research Centre (ONERA)
16.7%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Share of women among researchers at the civilian arm of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)
30.7%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Coverage: civilian activity
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French Institute of science and technology for transport, spatial planning, development and networks (IFSTTAR)
36.3%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the Institut Pasteur - Paris
49.7%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French Government Space Agency (CNES)
30.9%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Share of women among researchers at the French National Institute for Computer Science and Applied Mathematics (INRIA)
19.3%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers at the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM)
53.1%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
13.6%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in the Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
12.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in the Pharmaceuticals industry
58.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in Aeronautics and space construction
16.4%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in the Manufacture of communication equipment
12.5%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in the Automobile industry
12.9%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in Information technology and computer service activities
13.8%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in Specialist scientific and technical activities
23.8%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
14.6%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in Telecommunications
18.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
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Share of women among researchers in business enterprises in the Chemicals industry
46.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "36. gender equality in research".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

36.01 Total R&D personnel and share of women in 2014 (headcount in thousands, %) 1

 
Researchers Ancillary staff All R&D personnel
Number (in thousands) Proportion of women (%) Number (in thousands) Proportion of women (%) Number (in thousands) Proportion of women (%)
Business enterprises 224 20.0 118 27.0 342 22.4
Government 2 146 35.8 87 53.2 234 42.3
All 370 26.2 206 38.1 576 30.5
 

1 Semi-finalised data.
2 Break in series in 2014 : data on parity now include all public bodies. Universitary hospitals have been added.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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36.02 Share of women in research personnel in government in 2014 (%) 1

Inserm
Institut Pasteur - Paris
Inra
Cirad
Ifsttar
All government 2
University and other higher education institutions
Ifremer
IRD
CNRS
Cnes
CEA - Civil division
Inria
Onera
  
Researchers
R&D ancilliary staff
All
 
 

1 Semi-finalised data.
2 Break in series in 2014 : data on parity now include all public bodies. Universitary hospitals have been added.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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36.03 Proportion of women in research personnel in business enterprises in 2014 (%)  1

Pharmaceutical industry
Chemical industry
Specialised scientific and technical activities
All business enterprises
Telecommunications
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery
Publishing, audiovisual and broadcasting
Information technology and computer service activities
Electronic components and boards, computers, peripheral equipment
Manufacture of motor vehicles
Manufacture of communication equipment
Manufacture of instruments and appliances for measuring, testing and navigation, watches and clocks
Manufacture of electrical equipment
Manufacture of machines and equipment not included elsewhere
  
Researchers
R&D ancilliary staff
All
 
 

1 Semi-finalised data.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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36.04 Share of women among researchers in the main OECD countries in 2014 (%)

PT 1
 
SK
GB 1
PL
SI
DK 1
SE1
FI
HU
DE 1
FR
KR
 
 
EE
ES 1
NO
TR
IT 1
BE 1
IE 1
CL
AT 1
CZ
NL
 
JP
  
Researchers in business enterprises
Researchers in government
All
 
 

1 2013 data.

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Related statistical publications

 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 02 - La place des femmes dans la recherche en 2014 à travers les secteurs institutionnels - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé, Laurent Perrain - March 2017
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La nouvelle édition 2016 permet de mieux connaître la recherche menée dans les organismes et les établissements d'enseignement supérieur et celle réalisée en entreprise. En effet, le rapport 2016 intègre une approche de l'emploi scientifique par grands champs disciplinaires avec une consolidation ou une mise en cohérence des données portant sur les établissements d'enseignement supérieur, les organismes de recherche (EPST/EPIC) et les entreprises.

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Other editions

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Translation

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