Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

DEE on tertiary education includes all expenditure on public and private institutions in metropolitan France and overseas départements (Département d'outre-mer - DOM) for teaching and ancillaries: student support services, administration, supplies, university libraries, etc. It does not include activities related to continuing education.

This expenditure is revised every year by the French Education Account.

Results for the latest year are estimates.

The methods, scope and concepts used by the Education Account can change periodically. In 2012, for example, the method used to measure continuing education and expenditure by municipalities and households was revised. Results were also modified as a result of the switch to the 2010 base in the French national accounts and particularly the inclusion of Mayotte within its scope. GDP level was also affected by the change in accounting base. This rebasing, on top of the changes made in 1999 (inclusion of DOM) and 2006 (transition to the French organic law on finance laws (Loi organique relative aux lois de finance - LOLF)) caused breaks in the raw data series. To enable data to be followed chronologically, the main series have been backcasted to 1980. The recalculated amounts given here therefore differ from amounts in previous editions of the report on tertiary education and research in France.

Initial funding represents funding before transfers between the different economic agents are taken into account. It therefore consists of funding for which each agent is effectively responsible.

Final funding is a notion used to study the relationship between the last financer and either the education producer or the educational activity.

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01 education expenditure on tertiary education

This page has been updated. Read 01. education expenditure on tertiary education in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

The nation spent €28.7 billion (€bn) on tertiary education in 2013. This is 2.5 times more than in 1980 (in constant euros). The contribution by central government represented 70% of that amount. In 2013, average expenditure per student stood at €11,540, or 40% more than in 1980 (in constant euros).

In 2013, the nation (central government, local authorities, other public administrative bodies, households and companies) dedicated €28.7 billion to tertiary education, an increase of 1.2% over 2012 (at constant prices). Since 1980, expenditure on tertiary education has seen strong growth of 2.8% per year on average. Its share of domestic education expenditure (DEE) increased from 15.0% in 1980 to 19.8% in 2013 (table 01.01).

Over the period as a whole, DEE on tertiary education was multiplied by 2.5 in constant euros (chart 01.02). Despite this significant increase, average expenditure per student rose by only 40.1% due to a doubling of student numbers. Over the same period, average expenditure per secondary school pupil increased by 63.1%. Over the period 2006-2010, when there was both a rapid increase in DEE and a slowdown in student enrolment, expenditure per student increased by 2.5% on average per year. Since 2010, however, the slowdown in DEE combined with a rise in student numbers has resulted in a drop in spending per student of 0.9% annually. 1

Average expenditure per student stood at €11,540 in 2013 (chart 01.03). Although it may be difficult to compare the cost of different curricula directly, especially since research expenditure is included in the university totals, there are considerable differences from one branch of study to another. The cost varies from €10,850 per year for a university student to €14,850 for a pupil in a class preparing for admission to Grandes Ecoles (Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles - CPGE). However, in recent years, the gap between these average expenditure figures has tended to narrow (chart 01.03).

Seventy per cent of total expenditure goes on staff, especially teachers' wages (40%) (chart 01.04). 2

The theoretical cost of 18 years of education, with no repeat years, leading to a Bachelor's degree (via a general or technology second cycle) was estimated in 2013 to be €147,900, while a 17-year education leading to an Advanced technician diploma (Brevet de technicien supérieur - BTS) (via a vocational upper secondary cycle) would cost the nation €145,800.

In terms of initial funding (see definitions opposite), central government contributes the major share of DEE for tertiary education (70.4%), while local authorities contribute 10.5% and households 8.7% (table 01.01). In terms of final funding, i.e. after including grants in the household budget, the household share practically doubles (16.6%). Some direct or indirect support, funded by the central government and which benefit students or their families, do not appear in the DEE for tertiary education: these are related to taxation (increase in family quotient) or are not directly linked to student status (social housing benefit). If they were included (excluding social welfare payments), expenditure per student in 2013 would then increase from €11,540 to €12,760.

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📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP.
 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

1 Change in expenditure on programmes 150, 231 and 142 of the Inter-ministerial Mission for Research and Higher Education (Mission interministérielle recherche et enseignement supérieur - MIRES) was -0.2% between 2010 and 2011, +1% between 2011 and 2012 and +0.9% between 2012 and 2013 (at 2013 prices).
2 In the 2012 definitive accounts and the 2013 provisional accounts, a distinction is made between staff working in research and staff involved in teaching.

How to cite this paper :

DALOUS Jean-Pierre, JELJOUL Martine. Education expenditure on tertiary education. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2015. 8th ed. Chapter 01, 12-13 [Accessed 03/26/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-139433-9. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/8EN/EESR8EN_ES_01-education_expenditure_on_tertiary_education.php

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DEE on tertiary education includes all expenditure on public and private institutions in metropolitan France and overseas départements (Département d'outre-mer - DOM) for teaching and ancillaries: student support services, administration, supplies, university libraries, etc. It does not include activities related to continuing education.

This expenditure is revised every year by the French Education Account.

Results for the latest year are estimates.

The methods, scope and concepts used by the Education Account can change periodically. In 2012, for example, the method used to measure continuing education and expenditure by municipalities and households was revised. Results were also modified as a result of the switch to the 2010 base in the French national accounts and particularly the inclusion of Mayotte within its scope. GDP level was also affected by the change in accounting base. This rebasing, on top of the changes made in 1999 (inclusion of DOM) and 2006 (transition to the French organic law on finance laws (Loi organique relative aux lois de finance - LOLF)) caused breaks in the raw data series. To enable data to be followed chronologically, the main series have been backcasted to 1980. The recalculated amounts given here therefore differ from amounts in previous editions of the report on tertiary education and research in France.

Initial funding represents funding before transfers between the different economic agents are taken into account. It therefore consists of funding for which each agent is effectively responsible.

Final funding is a notion used to study the relationship between the last financer and either the education producer or the educational activity.

 

Key figures


Domestic education expenditure on higher education
28.7 bn
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Share of domestic education expenditure allocated to higher education
19.8%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Annual expenditure per student
11,540 
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Annual expenditure for a student in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
14,850 
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
  See more key figures  
Annual expenditure for a student in the Advanced technician's section (STS)
13,350 
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Annual expenditure for a university student
10,850 
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Central government share in funding domestic education expenditure
70.4%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Coverage: in initial funding
Source: MENESR-DEPP
Territorial authority share in funding domestic education expenditure
10.5%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
  See more key figures  
Household share in funding domestic education expenditure
8.7%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Share of expenditure on staff in domestic education expenditure for higher education
70%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Share of expenditure on teaching staff in domestic education expenditure for higher education
40%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP

01.01 Expenditure on higher education

 
1980 2000 2010 2011 2012 2013p
DEE on higher education 1
at current prices (in €bn) 4.4 18.6 27.4 27.9 28.1 28.7
at 2013 prices (in €bn) 11.4 22.9 28.3 28.5 28.4 28.7
Share in DEE (%) 15.0 17.0 19.5 19.7 19.8 19.8
Average expenditure per student 1 at 2013 prices (in euros) 8,240 10,470 11,850 11,870 11,600 11,540
Average expenditure per student including social and fiscal measures 2 at 2013 prices (in euros) 13,100 13,240 12,930 12,760
Structure of initial funding (%) 3
Central government 71.4 70.3 70.2 70.4
of which MENESR 62.9 62.1 62.6 62.9
Territorial authorities 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.5
Other public administrative bodies 4 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.1
Companies 7.8 8.3 8.4 8.3
Households 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.7
 

1 These series have been backcasted for the whole period (see methodology opposite).
2 This includes Social housing benefit (Allocation de logement à caractère social - ALS), the State contribution to Individualised rent subsidy (Aide personnalisée au logement - APL), increase in family quotient, tax reduction for tuition fees.
3 The structure of initial funding for higher education could not be backcasted before 2006.
4 Including the French national research agency (Agence nationale de la recherche - ANR) and the consular chambers (chambers of commerce and industry, chambers of trade, chambers of agriculture, etc.).
p provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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01.02 Comparison of trends in DEE, average expenditure and staff numbers in higher education (index base 100 in 1980, 2013 prices)

  
Staff numbers in higher education
Average expenditure per student
DEE on higher education
 
 

Series are backcasted to take into account changes in methodology (see methodology opposite).
p provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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01.03 Trend in average expenditure per student at 2013 prices (1980-2013)

  
All
University
STS
CPGE
 
 

Series are backcasted to take into account changes in methodology. They therefore differ from those given in previous editions of Higher Education and Research in France, Facts and Figures (see methodology opposite).
p provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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01.04 Nature of expenditure on higher education in 2013 p

Expenditure on teaching staff
Other staff expenditure (incl. research)
Operating expenditure
Capital expenditure
  
 
 

p provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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