Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

Domestic education expenditure (DEE) on higher education includes all expenditure on public and private institutions in mainland France and the overseas departments, on education and related activities: university publications, administration, supplies, university libraries, etc. It does not include continuing education activities.

This expenditure is assessed every year by the French Education Account.

The expenditure amounts for the latest year are provisional.

The methods, scope and concepts used by the Education Account change periodically. Thus in 2012, the measurement of continuing education and expenditure by households and municipalities was reviewed. The latter was also corrected in 2013. Likewise, results were also modified as a result of the switch to the 2010 base in the French national accounts and particularly the inclusion of Mayotte within its scope. This rebasing, on top of the changes made in 1999 (inclusion of DOM) and 2006 (transition to the French organic law on finance laws (LOLF)) caused breaks in the raw data series.To enable data to be followed chronologically, the main series have been backcasted to 1980. The recalculated amounts given here therefore differ from amounts in previous editions of the report on tertiary education and research in France.

Initial funding represents funding before transfers between the different economic agents are taken into account. It therefore consists of funding for which each agent is effectively responsible.

Final funding is a notion used to study the relationship between the last financer and either the education producer or the educational activity.

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01 education expenditure on tertiary education

This page has been updated. Read 01. education expenditure on tertiary education in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

The nation spent €29.2 billion (€bn) on tertiary education in 2014. This is 2.6 times more than in 1980 (in constant euros). The contribution by central government represented 69% of that amount. In 2014, average expenditure per student stood at €11,560, or 40% more than in 1980 (in constant euros)

In 2014, the nation (central government, local authorities, other public administrative bodies, households and companies) dedicated €29.2 billion to tertiary education, a fall of 0.3% over 2013 (at constant prices). Since 1980, expenditure on tertiary education has seen strong growth of 2.8% per year on average. Its share of domestic education expenditure (DEE) increased from 15.1% in 1980 to 20.0% in 2014 (table 01.01).

Over the whole period, DEE on tertiary education was multiplied by 2.6 in constant euros (chart 01.02). Despite this significant increase, average expenditure per student rose by only 39.7% due to a doubling of student numbers. Over the same period, average expenditure per secondary school pupil increased by 65.9%. Over the period 2006-2009, when there was both a rapid increase in DEE and a slowdown in student enrolment, expenditure per student increased by 3.5% on average per year. Since 2009, however, the slowdown in DEE combined with a new rise in the student numbers has resulted in a drop in spending per student of 0.7% annualy 1.

Average expenditure per student stood at €11,560 in 2014 (chart 01.03). Although it may be difficult to compare the cost of different curricula directly, especially since research expenditure is included in the university totals, there are considerable differences from one branch of study to another. The cost varies from €10,800 euros per year for a university student to €14,980 for a pupil in a class preparing for admission to Grandes Ecoles (CPGE). However, in recent years, the gap between these average expenditure figures has tended to narrow (chart 01.03).

More than seventy per cent of total expenditure goes on staff, especially teachers' wages (41%) (chart 01.04).

With no repeat years, leading to a Bachelor's degree (via a general or technology second cycle) was estimated in 2014 to be €148,590, while a 17-year education leading to an Advanced technician diploma (BTS) (via a vocational upper secondary cycle) would cost the nation €146,620.

In terms of initial funding (see definitions opposite), central government contributes the major share of DEE for tertiary education (69.0%) while local authorities contribute 10.9% and households 8.6% (table 01.01). In terms of final funding, i.e. after including grants in the household budget, the household share practically doubles (16.8%). Some direct or indirect support, funded by the central government and which benefit students or their families, do not appear in the DEE for tertiary education: these are related to taxation (increase in family quotient) or are not directly linked to student status (social housing benefit). If they were included (excluding social welfare payments), expenditure per student in 2014 would then increase €11,560 to €12,780.

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📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP.
 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

1 Change in expenditure on programmes 150, 231 and 142 of the Inter-ministerial Mission for Research and Higher Education (MIRES) was -0.2% between 2010 and 2011, +1% between 2011 and 2012, +0.9% between 2012 and 2013 and +0.0% between 2013 and 2014 (at 2014 prices).

How to cite this paper :

DALOUS Jean-Pierre, FRATACCI Lisa. Education expenditure on tertiary education. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 50 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2016. 9th ed. Chapter 01 [Accessed 08/21/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-151572-7. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/EESR9EN_ES_01-education_expenditure_on_tertiary_education.php

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Domestic education expenditure (DEE) on higher education includes all expenditure on public and private institutions in mainland France and the overseas departments, on education and related activities: university publications, administration, supplies, university libraries, etc. It does not include continuing education activities.

This expenditure is assessed every year by the French Education Account.

The expenditure amounts for the latest year are provisional.

The methods, scope and concepts used by the Education Account change periodically. Thus in 2012, the measurement of continuing education and expenditure by households and municipalities was reviewed. The latter was also corrected in 2013. Likewise, results were also modified as a result of the switch to the 2010 base in the French national accounts and particularly the inclusion of Mayotte within its scope. This rebasing, on top of the changes made in 1999 (inclusion of DOM) and 2006 (transition to the French organic law on finance laws (LOLF)) caused breaks in the raw data series.To enable data to be followed chronologically, the main series have been backcasted to 1980. The recalculated amounts given here therefore differ from amounts in previous editions of the report on tertiary education and research in France.

Initial funding represents funding before transfers between the different economic agents are taken into account. It therefore consists of funding for which each agent is effectively responsible.

Final funding is a notion used to study the relationship between the last financer and either the education producer or the educational activity.

 

Key figures


Domestic education expenditure on higher education
29.2 bn
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Share of domestic education expenditure allocated to higher education
20.0%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Annual expenditure per student
11,560 
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Annual expenditure for a student in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
14,980 
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
  See more key figures  
Annual expenditure for a student in the Advanced technician's section (STS)
13,660 
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Annual expenditure for a university student
10,800 
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Central government share in funding domestic education expenditure
69%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Coverage: in initial funding
Source: MENESR-DEPP
Territorial authority share in funding domestic education expenditure
10.9%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
  See more key figures  
Household share in funding domestic education expenditure
8.6%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Share of expenditure on staff in domestic education expenditure for higher education
72%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP
Share of expenditure on teaching staff in domestic education expenditure for higher education
41%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "01. education expenditure on tertiary education".

Source: MENESR-DEPP

01.01 Expenditure on higher education 1

 
1980 1990 2000 2010 2013 2014p
DEE on higher education (at current prices, in €bn) 2 4.5 11.9 18.6 27.4 29.1 29.2
DEE on higher education (at 2014 prices, in €bn) 2 11.4 16.7 23.0 28.4 29.3 29.2
Contribution to DEE (in %) 15.1 16.9 17.2 19.7 20.2 20.0
Average expenditure per student (at 2014 prices, in euros) 2 8,280 9,120 10,520 11,910 11,760 11,560
Average expenditure per student including social security and tax measures (at 2014 prices, in euros) 3 13,150 12,990 12,780
Structure of initial funding (in %) 4
State, 71.4 68.6 69.0
of which MENESR 62.9 61.6 62.2
Territorial authorities 10.6 11.1 10.9
Other public administrative bodies 5 1.7 1.9 1.9
Companies 7.8 9.6 9.6
Households 8.5 8.8 8.6
 

1 including apprenticeship.
2 These series have been backcasted for the whole period (see methodology opposite).
3 This includes Social housing benefit (ALS), the State contribution to Individualised rent subsidy (APL), increase in family quotient, tax reduction for tuition fees.
4 The structure of initial funding in higher education could not be backcasted before 2006.
5 Including the French national research agency (ANR) and the consular chambers (chambers of commerce and industry, chambers of trade, chambers of handicrafts, chambers of agriculture, etc.).
P: provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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01.02 Comparison of trends in DEE, average expenditure and staff numbers in higher education (index base 100 in 1980, 2014 prices)

  
Staff numbers in higher education
Average expenditure per student
DEE on higher education
 
 

Series are backcasted to take into account changes in methodology (see methodology opposite).
p: provisional.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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01.03 Trend in average expenditure per student at 2014 prices (1980-2014p)

  
All
STS
CPGE
University
 
 

p: provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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01.04 Nature of expenditure by higher education producers 1 in 2014p

Expenditure on teaching staff
Other staff expenditure (incl. research)
Operating expenditure
Capital expenditure
  
 
 

1 "Higher education producers" are economic agents (in the majority of cases, institutions) which carry out education activities.
P: provisional.

📄 Source:MENESR-DEPP
 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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En 2014, la dépense moyenne pour un élève ou un étudiant est de 8 360 euros. Elle s’élève avec le niveau, allant de 6 120 euros pour un écolier à 11 560 euros pour un étudiant. Depuis 2013, la dépense moyenne par élève du second degré augmente.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
01 - education expenditure on tertiary education - Jean-Pierre Dalous & Lisa Fratacci
The nation spent €30.1 billion (€bn) on tertiary education in 2015. This is 2.6 times more than in 1980 (in constant euros). The contribution by central government represented 67.9% of that amount. In 2015, average expenditure per student stood at €11,680, or 40% more than in 1980 (in constant euros) [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
01 - education expenditure on tertiary education - Jean-Pierre Dalous & Martine Jeljoul
The nation spent €28.7 billion (€bn) on tertiary education in 2013. This is 2.5 times more than in 1980 (in constant euros). The contribution by central government represented 70% of that amount. In 2013, average expenditure per student stood at €11,540, or 40% more than in 1980 (in constant euros) [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°9 - Juin 2016
01 - la dépense d’éducation pour l’enseignement supérieur - Jean-Pierre Dalous & Lisa Fratacci
La collectivité nationale a consacré 29,2 milliards d'euros (Md€) à l'enseignement supérieur en 2014. C'est 2,6 fois plus qu'en 1980 (en euros constants). L'État y participe pour 69 %. En 2014, la dépense moyenne par étudiant s'élève à 11 560 euros, soit 40 % de plus qu'en 1980 (en euros constants) [Consult the following page in french]


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