Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

As a student can enrol for more than one course, the data given here (as for chapter 10) do not relate to individuals, but to enrolments of new Baccalaureate holders in higher education (main enrolments only for university). The practice of multiple enrolments, which is particularly common in the Bachelor's degree programme, with enrolments in university and CPGE, mainly concerns general Baccalaureate holders, especially those in the scientific series.

Students at University Centres for Education and Research (CUFR) and similar institutions: the 2 National Polytechnical Institutes (INP), the 3 Technology Universities (UT) and the following major institutions (Observatoire, Inalco, IEP Paris (Institute of Political Studies), Paris-Dauphine, Globe de Paris physics institute, University of Lorraine) are included in the university numbers.

"Other courses" includes engineering schools and engineering courses in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounts, notaries, architecture, diverse specialities), major institutions, art schools, private faculties, paramedical schools (data 2013-14) and social work training (data 2013-14).

In order to be consistent with 2005, for which information on apprenticeships is not available, the STS for 2014 do not include vocational Baccalaureate holders attending STS via an apprenticeship.

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11 profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education

This page has been updated. Read 11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2014, general Baccalaureate holders represented 65.3% of new Baccalaureate holders enrolled in higher education. This rate is slightly down (-2 points) compared to the level recorded in 2005. Vocational Baccalaureate holders now represent 13% of new Baccalaureate holders enrolled in higher education. This proportion has increased by 8 points since 2005, whereas the proportion of new technological Baccalaureate holders has fallen by 6 points.

Most of the new Baccalaureate holders entering higher education have taken the general Baccalaureate, except in the Advanced technician's section (STS). They represent 94.5% of new entrants to classes preparing for admission to Grandes Ecoles (CPGE). After falling between 1995 and 2000, the share of general Baccalaureate holders entering university has since seen a slight rise, reaching 78% in 2014 (table 11.01). In STS, technological Baccalaureate holders account for most of the new entrants (43.2%). Their proportion has been regularly falling in recent years, although 2014 saw a slight upturn in this ratio (+1.3 points).

Vocational Baccalaureate holders represent 36% of new Baccalaureate holders in initial education, excluding apprenticeships. This proportion has more than doubled in 10 years, as in 2005, only 15.4% of new vocational Baccalaureate holders were on these courses. The proportion of new vocational Baccalaureate holders in STS has significantly increased for two years (+ 9 points) due to the introduction of the preferential student guidance policy in favour of STS.

In "other courses" (see methodology section opposite), general Baccalaureate holders are still very much in the majority (83% of entrants).

At university, general Baccalaureate holders represent 78% of new enrolments. The profile of these new Baccalaureate holders varies according to the course. Scientific Baccalaureate holders are mostly concentrated in "production" specialities at university technology institutes (IUT), in Sciences, Physical education and sports science and techniques (STAPS) and healthcare courses, where they make up virtually all of those enrolled. The other general Baccalaureate holders go into Humanities, Human Sciences, Law, Economics, Economic and Social Administration, and 'services' specialities at IUTs.

Of the new Baccalaureate holders enrolled in IUTs, 31% hold a technological Baccalaureate, mainly management, sciences and technology (STMG) in the 'services' specialities and Industry and sustainable development science and technology (STI2D) for the 'production' specialities (chart 11.02). Over 16,000 vocational Baccalaureate holders are enrolled at university, mainly in Law, Economics, Economic and Social Administration or Humanities, Human Sciences, Arts. Respectively, they represent 8.6% and 10.1% of enrolments in these two sectors.

Access to higher education is still very closely linked with social background. Among the 2014 Baccalaureate holders who enrolled in higher education straightaway, young people from the most advantaged social categories were over-represented. 27.6% had parents who were senior managers, teachers or freelance professional workers, compared with 22% for all Baccalaureate holders combined. In 2014, as in 2005, there were proportionally twice as many children of managers as children of manual workers in the main higher education sectors (table 11.03).

The share of new Baccalaureate holders from the most advantaged social categories differs considerably from one sector to another. It is highest in CPGEs and the healthcare disciplines, where the proportions of children of senior managers, teachers and the professions stand at 49% and 39.7% respectively.

By contrast, the short technological courses, IUTs and especially STS, receive more children of manual workers and office workers. They represent 31.7% of new enrolments in IUTs and 38.4% in STS, compared with fewer than 16.8% in CPGE.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

How to cite this paper :

FAUVET Laurent. Profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 50 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2016. 9th ed. Chapter 11 [Accessed 05/23/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-151572-7. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/EESR9EN_ES_11-profile_of_new_baccalaureat_holders_entering_the_main_branches_of_higher_education.php

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As a student can enrol for more than one course, the data given here (as for chapter 10) do not relate to individuals, but to enrolments of new Baccalaureate holders in higher education (main enrolments only for university). The practice of multiple enrolments, which is particularly common in the Bachelor's degree programme, with enrolments in university and CPGE, mainly concerns general Baccalaureate holders, especially those in the scientific series.

Students at University Centres for Education and Research (CUFR) and similar institutions: the 2 National Polytechnical Institutes (INP), the 3 Technology Universities (UT) and the following major institutions (Observatoire, Inalco, IEP Paris (Institute of Political Studies), Paris-Dauphine, Globe de Paris physics institute, University of Lorraine) are included in the university numbers.

"Other courses" includes engineering schools and engineering courses in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounts, notaries, architecture, diverse specialities), major institutions, art schools, private faculties, paramedical schools (data 2013-14) and social work training (data 2013-14).

In order to be consistent with 2005, for which information on apprenticeships is not available, the STS for 2014 do not include vocational Baccalaureate holders attending STS via an apprenticeship.

 

Key figures


Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
78.0%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
15.8%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of vocational baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
6.2%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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<iframe src='https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/CC-2155-share_of_vocational_baccalaureat_holders_among_newly_qualified_baccalaureat_holders_enrolled_at_the_university.php' width='100%' height='155 px' frameborder='0' id='GC' scrolling='no' style='min-width:240px; max-width:490px'></iframe>
Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
66.2%
 
2013
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
31.4%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of vocational baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
2.3%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
94.5%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
5.5%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of vocational baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
0%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
21.8%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
42.3%
 
2014
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
29.7%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
49.1%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
13.3%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
28.6%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
13.9%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
15.0%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
6.5%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
22.1%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
16.2%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
16.7%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
10.3%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
16.3%
 
2014-15
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profile of new Baccalaureat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN

11.01 Educational origin of new Baccalaureat holders studying in higher education (%)

 
University of which IUT CPGE STS Other courses 2 Reminder - Distribution of students by series
2005 2014 1 2005 2014 1 2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014
ES Bac 25.0 23.9 22.1 24.3 13.9 14.6 8.2 9.2 26.7 27.7 16.0 15.1
L Bac 15.6 13.4 2.0 2.0 9.1 9.0 4.0 4.3 12.6 9.8 9.5 7.6
S Bac 40.4 40.7 41.1 39.9 72.1 70.9 7.8 8.3 46.3 45.8 25.2 24.4
General Bac 81.0 78.0 65.2 66.2 95.1 94.5 20.0 21.8 85.6 83.3 50.7 47.1
STI2D Bac 3 3.8 3.6 14.6 13.1 2.2 2.5 21.9 9.4 2.2 1.7 7.1 3.9
STMG Bac 4 9.7 8.1 16.0 14.9 2.3 2.4 33.3 23.7 5.8 5.9 15.7 9.9
Other technological Bac 2.9 4.1 2.6 3.4 0.4 0.6 9.4 9.2 6.0 6.9 6.6 6.4
Technological Bac 16.4 15.8 33.2 31.4 4.9 5.5 64.6 42.3 14.0 14.5 29.4 20.2
Vocational Bac 2.6 6.2 1.6 2.3 0.0 0.0 15.4 36.0 0.4 2.2 19.9 32.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 

1 Students at the University of Lorraine, which has become a major institution, are included with university students.
2 'Other courses' correspond to engineering schools and engineering training in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounting, notaries, architecture, various specialities), schools of arts and culture, private faculties, paramedical schools (2012-13 data) and social care training (2012-13 data), accounting and management diplomas (DCG, formerly DPECF), classes preparing for admission to higher education (CPES) which recruit baccalauréat holders.
3 STI in the 2005 session.
4 STT in the 2005 session.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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11.02 Educational origin of new Baccalaureat holders in 2014 enrolled to study at university (%)

Law, economics, Economic and social administration
Arts, Humanities
Sciences, STAPS
Healthcare
IUT production
IUT services
University1
  
S Bac
Other general Bacs
STMG Bac
Other technological Bac
Vocational Bac
 
 

1 71 universities, the University of Lorraine and the two University centres for education and research (CUFR) in Albi and Mayotte.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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11.03 Social background of new Baccalaureat holders enrolling in the main higher education subject areas in 2005 and 2014 (%) 1

 
University 2 CPGE 3 STS 3 Main higher education study areas
Law, Economics, Humanities, Sciences and STAPS Healthcare IUT Total
2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014 2005 2014
Farmers, craftsmen, tradesmen, managers of businesses 9.1 9.9 9.8 10.1 11.5 11.6 9.6 10.2 10.7 10.8 10.4 10.5 9.9 10.4
Professions, managers, teachers 29.6 28.0 42.0 39.7 25.9 28.6 30.5 29.7 49.0 49.1 13.5 13.3 28.1 27.6
Intermediate professions 15.8 13.7 14.8 14.1 19.0 17.2 16.3 14.4 12.5 12.0 13.2 12.2 15.1 13.6
Employees 16.4 16.6 11.7 13.8 16.6 16.7 15.9 16.2 9.2 10.3 15.8 16.3 15.2 15.6
Workers 13.0 14.2 9.5 11.0 16.3 15.0 13.2 13.9 6.3 6.5 21.6 22.1 14.6 15.2
Retired, inactive 10.0 11.6 6.3 8.1 7.3 7.9 9.0 10.5 5.9 5.9 11.1 11.6 9.2 10.3
Not specified 6.1 6.0 5.9 3.2 3.4 3.0 5.5 5.1 6.4 5.4 14.4 14.0 7.9 7.3
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 

1 Information available for CPGE and STS under the responsibility of the MENESR.
2 Students at the University of Lorraine, which became a major institution in 2011, are included in numbers of university students in 2012.
3 excluding Ministry of Agriculture, Agrifood, and Forestry (MAAF).

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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Related statistical publication

 Note flash - Enseignement supérieur & Recherche 04 - Students in Advanced technician's sections in 2015-2016 - Mathias Denjean - April 2016
At the start of the 2015-16 academic year, the number of students enrolling in Advanced technician's sections (STS) was slightly up, and now exceeds 256,000 students in initial education (excluding apprenticeships). Institutions under the authority of the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) account for 90% of students on these programmes. The majority of new entrants to these sections hold technological baccalauréats.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
11 - profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education - Aline Pauron
In 2015, general baccalauréat holders represented 79.7% of new baccalauréat holders enrolled in . This rate dropped to 78.1% when dual CPGE enrolments were excluded. 43% of new entrants to short STS courses were technological baccalauréat holders and 35% were vocational baccalauréat holders [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
10 - profile of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education - Laurent Fauvet & Sylvaine Péan
At the start of the 2013-2014 academic year, students holding a general baccalauréat represented 79.2% of new baccalauréat holders enrolled at university. The proportion entering IUTs had grown by 3.5 points since 2004 and reached 67.5% in 2013, but was in decline compared with 2012. STSs still recruit mainly technological baccalauréat holders, but the proportion is decreasing as numbers of vocational baccalauréat holders increase [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°9 - Juin 2016
11 - le profil des nouveaux bacheliers entrant dans les principales filières du supérieur - Laurent Fauvet
En 2014 les bacheliers généraux représentent 65,3 % des nouveaux bacheliers inscrits dans l’enseignement supérieur. Ce taux est en léger retrait (- 2 points) par rapport à celui observé en 2005. Les bacheliers professionnels représentent désormais 13 % des nouveaux bacheliers inscrits. Cette part a crû de 8 points par rapport à 2005, tandis que celle des nouveaux bacheliers des séries technologiques a baissé de 6 points [Consult the following page in french]


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