Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

As a student can enrol for more than one course, the data given here (as for chapter 10) do not relate to individuals, but to enrolments of new Baccalaureate holders in higher education.

The Law of 22 July 2013 makes it mandatory for CPGE students to enrol in a public scientific, cultural or professional establishment (EPSCP) registered at their upper secondary school. Dual enrolments, already possible and previously effective but henceforth mandatory, thus doubled between 2014 and 2015. They relate principally to general baccalauréat holders and among them the scientific baccalauréat holders.

'Other courses' includes engineering schools and engineering courses in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounts, notaries, architecture, diverse specialities), major institutions, art schools, private faculties, paramedical schools (data 2014-15) and social work training (data 2014-15).

For reasons of consistency with 2005, where no information on apprenticeships is available, none of the sectors for 2015 include baccalauréat holders continuing their studies via apprenticeships, mainly vocational baccalauréat holders attending STS.

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11 profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education

In 2015, general baccalauréat holders represented 79.7% of new baccalauréat holders enrolled in . This rate dropped to 78.1% when dual CPGE enrolments were excluded. 43% of new entrants to short STS courses were technological baccalauréat holders and 35% were vocational baccalauréat holders.

Most of the new baccalauréat holders entering university in 2015 took the general baccalauréat (nearly eight out of ten). They accounted for 93.9% of new entrants in CPGE, 66.8% preparing for DUT and 21.5% in STS. (table 11.01).

Technological baccalauréat holders made up the greatest number of new entrants into STS (43.3%), but their proportion has dropped by thirteen points in ten years. Vocational baccalauréat holders account for 35.2% of new baccalauréat holders in initial education excluding apprenticeships. This proportion has almost doubled in ten years: in 2005, it accounted for a mere 20%.

In 'other courses' (see methodology), a large proportion of these were general baccalauréat holders (82.6% of entrants).

At university, nine out of ten new baccalauréat holders came from general education. The profile of these new baccalauréat holders varies according to the course. Scientific baccalauréat holders were mostly concentrated in production specialities at IUT, in 'Sciences, STAPS' and healthcare courses, where they make up virtually all of those enrolled. The other general baccalauréat holders go into 'Arts and Humanities', 'Law, Economics, Economic and Social Administration' and in IUT service specialities (chart 11.02).

Of the new baccalauréat holders enrolled in IUT, 31.1% held a technological baccalauréat (table 11.01), mainly in management, sciences and technology (STMG) in the 'services' specialities and Industry and sustainable development science and technology (STI2D) for the 'production' specialities. Slightly less than 15,000 vocational baccalauréat holders enrolled in a university, mainly in 'Arts and Humanities' and in 'Law, Economics and Economic and Social Administration'. They represented 9% and 7.4% respectively of enrolments in these two major sectors (chart 11.02).

Access to higher education was still very closely linked with social background. Among the 2015 baccalauréat holders who enrolled in higher education straightaway, young people from the most advantaged social categories were over-represented. Thus, 28% had parents who were senior managers, teachers or self-employed professionals, compared with 23% for all bacclauréat holders combined. In 2015, as in 2005, there were nearly twice as many children of managers as children of manual workers among new baccalauréat holders in the main higher education sectors (table 11.03).

The proportion of new baccalauréat holders from the most advantaged social categories differed considerably from one sector to another. It was highest in CPGE and the healthcare fields of education, where the proportion of children of senior managers or teachers stood at 48.8% and 38.7% respectively. By contrast, the short technological courses, IUT and especially STS, received more children of manual workers and office workers. They represented 32.1% of new enrolments in IUT and 39.6% in STS, compared with 17.5% in CPGE.

 Coverage:Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

How to cite this paper :

PAURON Aline. Profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 11 [Accessed 12/09/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_ES_11-profil_of_new_baccalaureat_holders_entering_the_main_branches_of_higher_education.php

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As a student can enrol for more than one course, the data given here (as for chapter 10) do not relate to individuals, but to enrolments of new Baccalaureate holders in higher education.

The Law of 22 July 2013 makes it mandatory for CPGE students to enrol in a public scientific, cultural or professional establishment (EPSCP) registered at their upper secondary school. Dual enrolments, already possible and previously effective but henceforth mandatory, thus doubled between 2014 and 2015. They relate principally to general baccalauréat holders and among them the scientific baccalauréat holders.

'Other courses' includes engineering schools and engineering courses in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounts, notaries, architecture, diverse specialities), major institutions, art schools, private faculties, paramedical schools (data 2014-15) and social work training (data 2014-15).

For reasons of consistency with 2005, where no information on apprenticeships is available, none of the sectors for 2015 include baccalauréat holders continuing their studies via apprenticeships, mainly vocational baccalauréat holders attending STS.

 

Key figures


Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
21.5%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
79.7%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of vocational baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
0.0%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
6.1%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
93.9%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of vocational baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
2.1%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
31.1%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of general baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
66.8%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of vocational baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
5.3%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
15.0%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of technological baccalauréat holders among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
43.3%
 
2015
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
16.6%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
10.5%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
17.1%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of employees among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
16.5%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
23.0%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
7.0%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
15.0%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of workers among newly qualified baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
13.5%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled at the university
29.9%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
  See more key figures  
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (CPGE)
48.8%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in Technological university institutes (IUT)
28.9%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN
Share of children of parents who are self-employed professionals, managers or teachers among new baccalauréat holders enrolled in Advanced technician's sections (STS)
13.4%
 
Metropolitan France + overseas departments
 
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Extract from the chapter "11. profil of new baccalauréat holders entering the main branches of higher education".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES, MAAF, SAFRAN

11.01 Educational origin of new Baccalaureat holders studying in higher education (%)

 
University of which IUT CPGE STS (excluding apprenticeship) Other courses 2 Main higher ed. study areas Reminder - Distribution of students by series
2005 2015 1 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015
ES Bac 25.0 23.5 22.1 24.1 13.9 14.5 5.0 9.5 26.7 28.5 20.2 20.1 16.0 16.2
L Bac 15.6 13.3 2.0 2.0 9.1 8.9 10.3 3.7 12.6 9.3 12.2 10.3 9.5 8.1
S Bac 40.4 43.0 41.1 40.8 72.1 70.5 8.7 8.3 46.3 44.8 35.7 37.9 25.2 27.0
General Bac 81.0 79.7 65.2 66.8 95.1 93.9 24.0 21.5 85.6 82.6 68.1 68.3 50.7 51.2
STI2D Bac3 3.8 3.6 14.6 13.0 2.2 2.8 16.8 10.0 2.2 3.2 7.6 4.9 7.1 4.3
STMG Bac 4 9.7 7.5 16.0 14.6 2.3 2.6 32.1 24.1 5.8 6.2 14.3 10.5 15.7 9.7
Other technological Bac 2.9 3.8 2.6 3.4 0.4 0.7 7.1 9.3 6.0 5.5 4.8 4.9 6.6 6.2
Technological Bac 16.4 15.0 33.2 31.1 4.9 6.1 56.0 43.3 14.0 14.9 26.7 20.3 29.4 20.2
Vocational Bac 2.6 5.3 1.6 2.1 0.0 0.0 20.0 35.2 0.4 2.5 5.2 11.2 19.9 28.5
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 

1 Students at the University of Lorraine, which has become a major institution, are included with university students.
2 'Other courses' correspond to engineering schools and engineering training in non-university partnerships, higher education institutions not attached to universities (business, management, sales, accounting, notaries, architecture, various specialities), schools of arts and culture, private faculties, paramedical schools (2012-13 data) and social care training (2012-13 data), accounting and management diplomas (DCG, formerly DPECF), classes preparing for admission to higher education (CPES) which recruit baccalauréat holders.
3 STI in the 2005 session.
4 STT in the 2005 session.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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11.02 Educational origin of new baccalauréat holders in 2015 enrolled to study at university (%)

Law, economics, Economic and social administration
Arts, Humanities
Sciences, STAPS
Healthcare
IUT production
IUT services
University 1
  
S Bac
Other general bacs
STMG Bac
Other technological bacs
Vocational bac
 
 

1 72 universities, the University of Lorraine and the two University centres for education and research (CUFR) in Albi and Mayotte. Students of the following institutions are included with universities : Observatoire, l'INALCO, l'IEP de paris, Paris-Dauphine et l'Institut Physique du Globe, les INP, les UT.

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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11.03 Social background of new baccalauréat holders enrolling in the main higher education subject areas in 2005-2015 (%) 1

 
University 2 CPGE 3 STS (excluding apprenticeship status) 3 Main higher ed. study areas
Law, Economics, Humanities, Sciences and STAPS Healthcare IUT Total
2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015 2005 2015
Farmers, craftsmen, tradesmen, managers of businesses 9.1 9.7 9.8 10.3 11.5 11.6 9.6 10.1 10.7 11.0 10.4 10.8 9.9 10.3
Professions, managers, teachers 29.2 28.5 42.0 38.7 25.9 28.9 30.2 29.9 49.0 48.8 13.5 13.4 28.0 28.0
Intermediate professions 15.8 14.0 14.8 14.1 19.0 17.0 16.3 14.5 12.5 11.6 13.2 12.5 15.1 13.7
Employees 16.6 16.7 11.7 14.5 16.6 17.1 16.0 16.5 9.2 10.5 15.8 16.6 15.2 15.9
Workers 13.2 13.5 9.5 11.1 16.3 15.0 13.3 13.5 6.3 7.0 21.6 23.0 14.6 15.1
Retired, inactive 10.0 11.8 6.3 8.6 7.3 7.8 9.1 10.7 5.9 6.0 11.1 11.4 9.2 10.4
Not specified 6.1 5.7 5.9 2.6 3.4 2.6 5.6 4.8 6.5 5.1 14.4 12.3 7.9 6.6
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
 

1 Information available for CPGEs and STSs under the responsibility of the MENESR.
2 Students at the University of Lorraine, which became a major institution in 2011, are included in numbers of university students.
3 excluding Ministry of Agriculture, Agrifood, and Forestry (MAAF).

 Coverage: Metropolitan France + overseas departments (DOM).

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