Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Sources:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Insee
Bureau Van Dijk, DIANE
Banque de France.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

Prior to 2008, the term 'enterprise' had a legal definition – a natural person or company that produces goods or services with the aim of selling them. Decree No. 2008-1354 on the Modernisation of the Economy (Loi de modernisation de l’économie – LME) of December 2008 defines an 'enterprise' as 'the smallest combination of legal units that is an organisational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making' (Council Regulation (EEC) No. 696/93 of 15 March 1993).

Since 2008, an 'enterprise' has therefore been defined on the basis of economic, rather than legal, criteria.

The decree establishes four categories of enterprises:

Micro-enterprises (MIC) employ fewer than 10 people and have an annual turnover or balance sheet total of no more than €2 million. Micro-enterprises fall under the category of SMEs.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ fewer than 250 people and have a turnover of no more than €50 million or a balance sheet total of no more than €43 million. Micro-enterprises fall under the category of SMEs.

Intermediate-sized enterprises are companies that do not fall under the SME category, employ fewer than 5,000 people and have a turnover of no more than €1,500 million or a balance sheet total of no more than €2,000 million.

Large enterprises are companies that do not fall under any of the previous categories.

Only legal units located in France have been included in this analysis. Consequently, in the case of multinational companies, only units based within French territory are taken into account when analysing their R&D activities and determining which category of enterprise they fall under. Manufacturing industries are categorised according to their technology intensity using a typology of activities set out in the second version of the French classification of activities (Nomenclature d'activités française – NAF).

Four subsets are defined (OECD and Eurostat): high-technology, medium high-technology, medium low-technology and low-technology.

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29 research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises

This page has been updated. Read 28. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2013, SMEs represented 17% of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure (BERD), over half of which was invested in the service sector. Large enterprises, which accounted for 57% of BERD, focused three quarters of their R&D efforts in the high and medium-high technology industries.

Total intramural expenditure on R&D (BERD) of enterprises with establishments in France amounted to €30.7 billion in 2013 (table 29.01). Large companies were responsible for the majority of this expenditure (57%), while intermediate-sized enterprises (entreprises de taille intermédiaire – ETI) accounted for one quarter. In comparison with their intramural expenditure on R&D, SMEs offered more jobs in this area: they accounted for 17% of BERD, with 23% of R&D personnel.

In 2013, R&D accounted for 251,450 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs in businesses, 64% of which were R&D research or engineering positions. The proportion of researchers and engineers in businesses' R&D workforces was slightly higher in all SMEs (66%) than in intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises (61% and 65% respectively) (chart 29.02). SMEs and intermediate-sized enterprises active in R&D exported more proportionally. Respectively, 30% and 34% of their turnover came from export, compared to 10% and 21% on average for all SMEs and ETIs (chart 29.03).

The R&D work carried out by SMEs was largely devoted to the service sector: micro-enterprises invested three quarters and SMEs (excluding micro-enterprises) half of their GERD in this area (chart 29.04). Conversely, 44% of R&D expenditure by large enterprises went towards high and medium-high technology industries (pharmaceutical industry, manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products; manufacture of air and spacecraft) and 31% went to medium to high technology industries. Three-quarters of R&D expenditure by intermediate-sized enterprises was industrial, but less specialised.

Direct public funding for R&D (excluding tax relief and measures to reduce social security contributions) in the form of public subsidies and government contracts rose to €2.7 billion in 2013. Large enterprises received 68% of this total (chart 29.05), intermediate-sized enterprises 11% and SMEs 21%. There was therefore less of a focus on direct funding for intermediate-sized enterprises in relation to their R&D expenditure.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

TESTAS Anna. Research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 50 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2016. 9th ed. Chapter 29 [Accessed 10/16/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-151572-7. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/EESR9EN_R_29-research_and_development_r_d_in_small_and_medium_sized_enterprises_smes_intermediate_sized_enterprises_and_large_enterprises.php

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Prior to 2008, the term 'enterprise' had a legal definition – a natural person or company that produces goods or services with the aim of selling them. Decree No. 2008-1354 on the Modernisation of the Economy (Loi de modernisation de l’économie – LME) of December 2008 defines an 'enterprise' as 'the smallest combination of legal units that is an organisational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making' (Council Regulation (EEC) No. 696/93 of 15 March 1993).

Since 2008, an 'enterprise' has therefore been defined on the basis of economic, rather than legal, criteria.

The decree establishes four categories of enterprises:

Micro-enterprises (MIC) employ fewer than 10 people and have an annual turnover or balance sheet total of no more than €2 million. Micro-enterprises fall under the category of SMEs.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ fewer than 250 people and have a turnover of no more than €50 million or a balance sheet total of no more than €43 million. Micro-enterprises fall under the category of SMEs.

Intermediate-sized enterprises are companies that do not fall under the SME category, employ fewer than 5,000 people and have a turnover of no more than €1,500 million or a balance sheet total of no more than €2,000 million.

Large enterprises are companies that do not fall under any of the previous categories.

Only legal units located in France have been included in this analysis. Consequently, in the case of multinational companies, only units based within French territory are taken into account when analysing their R&D activities and determining which category of enterprise they fall under. Manufacturing industries are categorised according to their technology intensity using a typology of activities set out in the second version of the French classification of activities (Nomenclature d'activités française – NAF).

Four subsets are defined (OECD and Eurostat): high-technology, medium high-technology, medium low-technology and low-technology.

 

Key figures


Intramural R&D expenditure by micro-firms
840 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Intramural R&D expenditure by intermediate-sized enterprises
8,130 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Intramural R&D expenditure by SMEs
4,260 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Intramural R&D expenditure by large enterprises
17,480 M
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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  See more key figures  
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed by large enterprises
57%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Share of direct public funding benefitting SMEs
21%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of direct public funding benefitting intermediate-sized enterprises
9.9%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of direct public funding benefitting large enterprises
68%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed by SMEs
14%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Share of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure executed by intermediate-sized enterprises
26%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of all R&D staff in micro-firms
11,180
 people (FTE)
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of all R&D staff in intermediate-sized enterprises
71,900
 people (FTE)
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
  See more key figures  
Number of all R&D staff in SMEs
46,900
 people (FTE)
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: excluding micro-entreprises
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Number of all R&D staff in large enterprises
121,470
 people (FTE)
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "29. research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises".

Coverage: full-time equivalent
Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

29.01 2013 figures for the different categories of enterprises carrying out R&D work

 
Micro-firms (MIC) SMEs (excluding MICs) Intermediate-size enterprises Large enterprises All
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (€M) 840 4,260 8,130 17,480 30,710
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (as a % of the total) 3 14 26 57 100
Direct public funding for R&D (M€) 150 420 300 1,850 2,720
Direct public funding / GERD (as a %) 18 10 4 11 9
Total R&D workforce (FTE) 11,180 46,900 71,900 121,470 251,450
Total R&D workforce (%) 4 19 29 48 100
Proportion of researchers in relation to total R&D workforce 67 66 61 65 64

 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.02 Total R&D workforce and researchers in 2013 by enterprise category (FTE)

Micro-enterprises (MIC)
SMEs (excluding MICs)
Intermediate-sized enterprises
Large enterprises
  
Total R&D workforce
Total researchers
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.03 Proportion of turnover from export in 2013 (%)

SMEs (including MICs)
Intermediate size enterprises
Large enterprises
All
  
R&D enterprises
All enterprises
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.04 Gross domestic expenditure on R&D in 2013 by technology intensity and enterprise category (in €M and as a %)

Micro-enterprises (MIC)
SMEs (excluding MICs)
Intermediate size enterprises
Large enterprises
All
  
high-technology
medium-high technology
medium-low technology
low technology
Other industries
Service activities
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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29.05 R&D expenditure and public funding in 2013 by company category (€M, %)

Intramural expenditure
Extramural expenditure
Direct public funding
  
SMEs (including MICs)
Intermediate-sized enterprises
Large enterprises
 
 

SME GERD accounts for 17% of all business GERD. R&D extramural expenditure (DERD) by SMEs represents 10% of total DERD. SMEs receive 21% of all direct public funding to finance their R&D work.

 Coverage: Whole of France.

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 Rapport sur l'évolution des PME 11 - Annual Report on SME Trends, 2015 -
PME 2015 - Rapport sur l’évolution des PME est un ouvrage de référence qui rassemble de multiples données pour décrire l’activité de ces entreprises. La dégradation de la situation économique et financière des entreprises semble marquer une pause en 2014 pour les PME et les ETI, tandis que les microentreprises sont toujours à la peine. Les faibles perspectives de croissance en France et la forte proportion d’entreprises adressant le marché domestique fragilisent cette situation. Toutefois, les chefs d’entreprise qui font le choix de passer outre en créant leur propre activité, en innovant ou en exportant sont toujours plus nombreux, en particulier chez les PME et les microentreprises.

Le rapport propose notamment une contribution sur l'activité de R&D des PME en 2015
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In 2010, 11,000 small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) performed the equivalent of €4.0 billion of research and development (R&D) work. There work was mainly focused on engineering, programming and IT consulting, or software publishing.

Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
28 - research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises - Camille Schweitzer
In 2014, SMEs (including micro-firms) represented 17% of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure (BERD), over half of which was invested in the service sector. Large enterprises, which accounted for 58% of BERD, focused three quarters of their R&D efforts in the high and medium-high technology industries [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
28 - research and development (R&D) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), intermediate-sized enterprises and large enterprises - Anna Testas
In 2012, SMEs accounted for 86% of enterprises carrying out R&D work in France. They represented 16% of intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure (BERD), half of which was invested in the service sector. Large enterprises, which accounted for 59% of BERD, focused three quarters of their R&D efforts in the high and medium-high technology industries [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°9 - Juin 2016
29 - la R&D dans les PME, les ETI et les grandes entreprises - Anna Testas
En 2013, les PME réalisent 17 % des dépenses intérieures de R&D des entreprises (DIRDE), dont plus de la moitié en faveur des activités de services. Les grandes entreprises, à l’origine de 57 % de la DIRDE, réalisent les trois-quarts de leur effort dans les industries de haute et moyenne-haute technologie [Consult the following page in french]


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