Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

Indicators are calculated from the PATSTAT database maintained by the EPO, enhanced by data from the OECD's REGPAT database. The indicators refer to the publication date of US patent applications by USPTO. Publication of a granted patent can often be five years after the application is filed.

Patent counting is based on the address of the inventor (where the research was carried out) and not that of the applicants (where the body filing the application has its headquarters). When the patent has a single inventor (for example, a French person), then one point is awarded to France. However, if the patent is co-authored by two inventors from two different countries, then half a point is awarded to each country. This type of fractional calculation measures a country's contribution to worldwide production. The indicators are averaged out over three years; 2013 is therefore the average value over 2011, 2012 and 2013.

A country's world share of US patents (USPTO) is the ratio between the number of US patents from the country and the total number of US patents.

A country's specialisation index is the ratio between the country's world share in a specific field and the country's world share in all fields combined.

A country's share of patents involving a foreign applicant is the ratio between the number of the country's patents where the applicant is located abroad and the total number of patents for the country, using a full count (if the patent application has an inventor from the country, a full point is awarded to the country).

The share of international co-invention patents is the ratio between the number of the country's patents that are co-invented with at least one participant located abroad and the total number of patents by the country, using a full count.

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50 technological production by France measured by patents with the United States Patent and Trademark Office

In 2013, France was ranked 7th in the world in the United States patent system, with 2.1% of patents granted. Its main specialisations are in the sub-fields of 'Organic fine chemistry', 'Transport' and 'Pharmaceuticals'. All fields combined, France's world share has increased by 6% since 2008. During this period, the share of US patents by France involving international collaboration has increased by 11%.

A patent for an invention is a title that gives its holder an exclusive right to exploit the invention for a certain time and in a limited territory. The rights associated with filing a patent are related to the countries covered by the office where the holder made the request. Due to the size of its market, the US patent system, managed by the USPTO, is particularly attractive for applicants. In 2013, the world share of US patents granted to French participants was 2.1%. This share was 2.9% in 1994. Until 2006, it declined steadily then stabilised. The reason for this decline is partly the dynamism of new countries in technological production, which has also resulted in a considerable increase in the total number of patents in the US system.

In 2013, in the US patent system France specialised in the fields of 'Chemistry-materials' (specialisation index 1.59) and, to a lesser extent, 'Mechanical engineering'. It is under-specialised in the field of 'Electrical and electronic engineering' (chart 50.01). Between 2008 and 2013, France strengthened its specialisation in the fields of 'Mechanical engineering' and 'Instruments', by 12% and 11% respectively.

In 2013, in the 35 technological sub-fields, France represented between 3.9% and 5.4% of US patents in 'Organic fine chemistry', 'Transport', 'Pharmaceuticals', Materials, metallurgy', and 'Engines, pumps, turbines' (table 50.02). Between 2008 and 2013, France strengthened its specialisation in its top ten sub-fields in the US patent system, with the exception of 'Organic fine chemistry', 'Pharmaceuticals', and 'Pure Chemistry' (-26%, -6% and -2% respectively).

The share of patents granted that involve a foreign applicant is measured from the share of US patents invented in France where one applicant (at least) is located outside France. In 2013, all fields combined, 41.6% of patents granted involved an applicant located abroad (chart 50.03). This share was significantly lower in 'Mechanical engineering' and significantly higher in 'Chemistry-materials'. Between 2008 and 2013, all fields combined, this share increased by 10% and in particular by 31% in Chemistry-materials and 35% in Other fields, which includes consumer goods and Civil engineering.

In 2013, the United States and Japan were the top countries by their share of US granted patents (chart 50.04). Germany, in 3rd place, was the top European country. South Korea and Taiwan were ranked 4th and 5th. Next came Canada, France, China and the United Kingdom. Between 2008 and 2013, there was a significant increase in the world share of US patents granted to South Korea (+31%), China (+164%), a more modest producer of patents, and also to India (+105%), a small producer of patents. At the same time there was a drop in the share of US patents from Japan (-7%), Germany and the United States (-5% each), and to a lesser extent the Netherlands (-2%).

In 2013, 26.6% of USPTO patents from France were co-invented with a foreign partner (chart 50.05). The share of patents produced by international co-invention was similar in Canada and significantly higher in the United Kingdom and China, but less than 11% for Taiwan, the United States, South Korea and Japan. Between 2008 and 2013, the share of US patents produced by international co-invention increased by more than 10% for the top ten producing countries (+11% for France), with the exception of Israel (+4%) and China (-19%).

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How to cite this paper :

ENOCK LEVI Tessa, LAVILLE Françoise, ROTH Chris, TAILLIBERT Marie-Laure. Technological production by France measured by patents with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 50 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2016. 9th ed. Chapter 50 [Accessed 08/20/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-151572-7. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/EESR9EN_R_50-technological_production_by_france_measured_by_patents_with_the_united_states_patent_and_trademark_office.php

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Indicators are calculated from the PATSTAT database maintained by the EPO, enhanced by data from the OECD's REGPAT database. The indicators refer to the publication date of US patent applications by USPTO. Publication of a granted patent can often be five years after the application is filed.

Patent counting is based on the address of the inventor (where the research was carried out) and not that of the applicants (where the body filing the application has its headquarters). When the patent has a single inventor (for example, a French person), then one point is awarded to France. However, if the patent is co-authored by two inventors from two different countries, then half a point is awarded to each country. This type of fractional calculation measures a country's contribution to worldwide production. The indicators are averaged out over three years; 2013 is therefore the average value over 2011, 2012 and 2013.

A country's world share of US patents (USPTO) is the ratio between the number of US patents from the country and the total number of US patents.

A country's specialisation index is the ratio between the country's world share in a specific field and the country's world share in all fields combined.

A country's share of patents involving a foreign applicant is the ratio between the number of the country's patents where the applicant is located abroad and the total number of patents for the country, using a full count (if the patent application has an inventor from the country, a full point is awarded to the country).

The share of international co-invention patents is the ratio between the number of the country's patents that are co-invented with at least one participant located abroad and the total number of patents by the country, using a full count.

 

Key figures


France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office
2.1%
 
2013
 
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Extract from the chapter "50. technological production by France measured by patents with the United States Patent and Trademark Office".

Coverage: all fields combined
Source: EPO (Patstat) & OECD (Regpat)
France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Organic fine chemistry
5.4%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Engines, pumps, turbines
3.9%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Materials, metallurgy
3.9%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Pharmaceuticals
4.1%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Transport
4.3%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Macromolecular chemistry
3.3%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Basic chemistry
2.9%
 
2013
 
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France's world share of patents granted by the US Patent Office in Tooling
3.0%
 
2013
 
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50.01 US patents filed: specialisation index by technical field for France (2008 and 2013)


2008
2013
 
 

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50.02 US patents granted: specialisation index and world share for the top ten sub-fields of specialisation for France (2008, 2013 and change from 2008 to 2013)

 
Specialisation index World share 2013 (%)
2008 2013 Change 2013/2008 (%)
Organic fine chemistry 3.40 2.52 -26 5.4
Transport 1.58 2.04 +28 4.3
Pharmaceuticals 2.04 1.92 -6 4.1
Materials, metallurgy 1.79 1.84 +3 3.9
Engines, pumps, turbines 1.49 1.83 +23 3.9
Macromolecular chemistry 1.55 1.56 0 3.3
Machine tools 1.30 1.40 +8 3.0
Measurement 1.11 1.40 +26 3.0
Basic chemistry 1.38 1.35 -2 2.9
Biological analyses 1.33 1.34 +1 2.9
All fields 1.00 1.00 - 2.1

 

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50.03 US patents granted: share of patents granted involving a foreign applicant, by technical field, for France (2008 and 2013) (%)

Electricity-electronics
Instruments
Chemistry-materials
Mechanical engineering
Other fields
All fields
  
2008
2013
 
 

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50.04 US patents granted: world share, all technical fields combined, for the top producing countries (2013, change from 2008 to 2013)

  
North America
Asia
Europe
France
Oceania
 
 

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50.05 US patents granted: share of patents involving international co-invention, all technological fields combined, for the top ten patent producing countries (2003, 2008 and 2013) (%)

US
 
DE
TW
FR
CN
 
 
JP
KR
CA
GB
 
IL
  
2003
2008
2013
 
 

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Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
49 - technological production by France measured by patents with the United States Patent and Trademark Office - Françoise Laville, Chris Roth & Marie-Laure Taillibert
In 2012, France was ranked 7th in the world in the United States patent system, with 2.1% of patents granted. Its main specialisations are in the sub-fields of "Organic fine chemistry", "Engines, pumps, turbines" and "Materials, metallurgy". All fields combined, France's world share has increased 3% since 2007. During this period, the share of US patents by France involving international collaboration has increased by 10% [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°9 - Juin 2016
50 - la production technologique de la France mesurée par les brevets de l'office américains des brevets - Tessa Enock Levi, Françoise Laville, Chris Roth & Marie-Laure Taillibert
En 2013, la France est au 7ème rang mondial dans le système américain de brevets avec 2,1 % des brevets délivrés. Elle est notamment spécialisée dans les sous-domaines « chimie organique fine », « transports » et « pharmacie ». Tous domaines confondus, la part mondiale de la France a augmenté de 6 % depuis 2008. Pendant cette période, la part des brevets américains de la France impliquant une collaboration internationale a progressé de 11 % [Consult the following page in french]


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