Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

Business sector: data taken from the annual survey of businesses that carry out R&D in France.

Public sector: data collected from the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of MIRES budget allocations for R&D, as well as from the results of the R&D survey on the expenditure and resources of dedicated state research institutions.

Socio-economic objectives are understood to mean the aim of the R&D in question. They can be used to measure the total funding devoted to specific objectives within public research and are categorised using a classification system to allow for comparisons with other countries.

The multidisciplinary nature of environmental R&D is taken into account in different ways for businesses and the public sector:

- businesses: the survey asks businesses what proportion (%) of their intramural R&D expenditure they devote to environmental protection.

- public sector: the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of budget allocations reveals a provisional level of funding committed that makes it possible to establish what percentage of allocations devoted to environmental R&D are used. This percentage is then applied to the total intramural government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) taken from the annual R&D survey.

The classification of environmental protection activities and expenditure (Cepa 2000) (EESR9EN_Annex_5) is a Europe-wide generic, multi-purpose, functional classification for environmental protection. It is used to classify activities, as well as products, actual outlays (expenditure) and other transactions. It does not include the management of natural resources (such as the supply of water) or the prevention of natural hazards (such as landslides and flooding). For this reason, business enterprise expenditure on ‘environmental’ R&D is often estimated using a broader scope. As a result, the data presented in this analysis are not directly comparable with those obtained on the basis of the Cepa 2000 concepts.

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45 environmental research and development

This page has been updated. Read 44. environmental research and development in Higher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017

In 2013, R&D expenditure devoted either directly or indirectly to environmental issues was estimated to be €5 billion, equivalent to 10% of France’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D. 60% of expenditure on environmental research and development (excluding Energy and Transport) was incurred by businesses (compared with 20% in 2000).

Environmental research and development (R&D) lies at the crossroads of many different fields and lends itself to a multidisciplinary approach. This is due to the fact that many activities can have a positive impact on the environment, without having environmental protection as their primary aim. It therefore also encompasses research into managing natural resources, using energy in a rational way, renewable materials and biodiversity. More generally, environmental considerations affect almost all fields of research.

In 2013, R&D expenditure by the public and private sectors on issues relating to the environment was estimated to be around €5 billion.

The French government has long contributed the lion’s share of expenditure on environmental R&D. This government expenditure can be broken down into three fields of research with specific objectives (Environment – Monitoring and protecting the global environment, Exploration and exploitation of the earth and sea, Natural environments, see chapter A5). The proportion of expenditure on environmental R&D implemented by government peaked at more than 81% in 2000. The gap between public and private sector stakeholders has been gradually shrinking ever since. In 2013, businesses implemented 55% of expenditure or 60% if the fields of Energy and Transport are excluded (chart 45.01).

In the business sector, environmental R&D, including Energy and Transport, accounted for 8.4% (€2.6 billion) of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by the private sector in 2013. Four branches implemented 68% of expenditure on environmental R&D and accounted for 35% of intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD): ‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Energy’, ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’ and ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’ (chart 45.02).

In 2013, the French government spent €2.1 billion on environmental R&D. Taken in its narrow sense (excluding Energy and Transport), environmental R&D absorbed 51% (€1 billion) of this expenditure. The main area of research within environmental R&D was ‘Monitoring and protecting the environment’, followed by university research into natural environments (chart 45.03).

6% of the MIRES budget allocations for R&D went towards environmental research in 2015 (chart 45.04a and chart 45.04b). Those assigned to the various objectives within this field totalled €2 billion. The Energy and Transport objectives, which include environmental considerations, accounted for 9% of budget allocations. In 2015, the French National Research Agency (ANR) and Bpifrance, together with the government departments responsible for ecology and industry, committed to providing more than €100 million in funding for R&D in environmental technologies or those that factor in environmental impacts. The French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) contributed €139 million, most of which was devoted to training through research and university research.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

NISSLÉ Claudette-Vincent. Environmental research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 50 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2016. 9th ed. Chapter 45 [Accessed 06/21/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-151572-7. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/9EN/EESR9EN_R_45-environmental_research_and_development.php

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Business sector: data taken from the annual survey of businesses that carry out R&D in France.

Public sector: data collected from the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of MIRES budget allocations for R&D, as well as from the results of the R&D survey on the expenditure and resources of dedicated state research institutions.

Socio-economic objectives are understood to mean the aim of the R&D in question. They can be used to measure the total funding devoted to specific objectives within public research and are categorised using a classification system to allow for comparisons with other countries.

The multidisciplinary nature of environmental R&D is taken into account in different ways for businesses and the public sector:

- businesses: the survey asks businesses what proportion (%) of their intramural R&D expenditure they devote to environmental protection.

- public sector: the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of budget allocations reveals a provisional level of funding committed that makes it possible to establish what percentage of allocations devoted to environmental R&D are used. This percentage is then applied to the total intramural government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) taken from the annual R&D survey.

The classification of environmental protection activities and expenditure (Cepa 2000) (EESR9EN_Annex_5) is a Europe-wide generic, multi-purpose, functional classification for environmental protection. It is used to classify activities, as well as products, actual outlays (expenditure) and other transactions. It does not include the management of natural resources (such as the supply of water) or the prevention of natural hazards (such as landslides and flooding). For this reason, business enterprise expenditure on ‘environmental’ R&D is often estimated using a broader scope. As a result, the data presented in this analysis are not directly comparable with those obtained on the basis of the Cepa 2000 concepts.

 

Key figures


Share of gross domestic expenditure on R&D devoted to the environment
10%
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "45. environmental research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D devoted to the environment
5 bn
 
2013
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "45. environmental research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

45.01 Proportion of expenditure on environmental R&D by businesses and the public sector in 2000 and 2013 (%)

2000
2013
2013
Environment (including Energy and Transport)
Environment (excluding Energy and Transport)
  
Businesses
Public sector
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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45.02 Intramural BERD devoted to environmental R&D in 6 research branches in 2013 (€M, %)

Energy
Agri-food industry
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery
Manufacture of motor vehicles
  
Intramural BERD devoted to environmental R&D
Intramural BERD excluding environmental R&D
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

You can embed this chart to your website or your blog by copying the HTML code and pasting it into the source code of your website / blog:

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45.03 Different areas of research as a proportion of all environmental R&D by the public sector in 2013 (%)

Monitoring and protecting the environment
Natural environments
Exploration and exploitation of the earth and sea
Energy
Transport
 
 
Environmental R&D
  
2000
2013
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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45.04a The MIRES budget allocations for R&D in 2015 - Amounts devoted to environmental R&D and other socio-economic objectives (€M)

Transport
Energy
Environment
Other socio-economic objectives
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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45.04b MIRES budget allocations for R&D in 2015 - Breakdown by socio-economic objective of allocations devoted to environmental R&D, energy and transport (€M)

Exploration and exploitation of the earth and sea
Land and river transportation industry
Aeronautical transportation industry (excluding space)
Other measures for monitoring and protecting the environment
Monitoring and protection of the atmosphere and climate
Natural environments
Energy
Energy
Transport sector
Environmental sector
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 10th edition - June 2017
44 - environmental research and development - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé
In 2014, R&D expenditure devoted either directly or indirectly to environmental issues was estimated to be €5 billion, equivalent to 11% of France’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D. Half of expenditure on environmental research and development (excluding Energy and Transport) was incurred by businesses (compared with 20% in 2000) [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
43 - environmental research and development - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé
In 2012, R&D expenditure devoted either directly or indirectly to environmental issues was estimated to be €5 billion, equivalent to 11% of France’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D. Nearly 60% of expenditure on environmental research and development (excluding Energy and Transport) was incurred by businesses (compared with 20% in 2000) [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°9 - Juin 2016
45 - la recherche en environnement - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé
En 2013, les dépenses de R&D consacrées directement ou indirectement à l’environnement sont évaluées à près de 5 milliards d’euros (Md€), soit 10 % de la dépense intérieure de R&D. 60 % (contre 20 % en 2000) des dépenses de R&D en environnement (hors Énergie et Transports) sont pris en charge par les entreprises [Consult the following page in french]


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