Cover of higher education & research in France, facts and figures

📄 Source:MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

Business sector: data taken from the annual survey of businesses that carry out R&D in France.

Public sector: data collected from the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of MIRES budget allocations for R&D, as well as from the results of the R&D survey on the expenditure and resources of dedicated state research institutions.

Socio-economic objectives are understood to mean the aim of the R&D in question. They can be used to measure the total funding devoted to specific objectives within public research and are categorised using a classification system to allow for comparisons with other countries.

The multidisciplinary nature of environmental R&D is taken into account in different ways for businesses and the public sector:

- businesses: the survey asks businesses what proportion (%) of their intramural R&D expenditure they devote to environmental protection.

- public sector: the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of budget allocations reveals a provisional level of funding committed that makes it possible to establish what percentage of allocations devoted to environmental R&D are used. This percentage is then applied to the total intramural government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) taken from the annual R&D survey.

The classification of environmental protection activities and expenditure (Cepa 2000) (chapter A5) is a Europe-wide generic, multi-purpose, functional classification for environmental protection. It is used to classify activities, as well as products, actual outlays (expenditure) and other transactions. It does not include the management of natural resources (such as the supply of water) or the prevention of natural hazards (such as landslides and flooding). For this reason, business enterprise expenditure on ‘environmental’ R&D is often estimated using a broader scope. As a result, the data presented in this analysis are not directly comparable with those obtained on the basis of the Cepa 2000 concepts.

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44 environmental research and development

In 2014, R&D expenditure devoted either directly or indirectly to environmental issues was estimated to be €5 billion, equivalent to 11% of France’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D. Half of expenditure on environmental research and development (excluding Energy and Transport) was incurred by businesses (compared with 20% in 2000).

Environmental research and development (R&D) lies at the crossroads of many different fields and lends itself to a multidisciplinary approach. This is due to the fact that many activities can have a positive impact on the environment, without having environmental protection as their primary aim. It therefore also encompasses research into managing natural resources, using energy in a rational way, renewable materials and biodiversity. More generally, environmental considerations affect almost all fields of research.

In 2014, R&D expenditure by the public and private sectors on issues relating to the environment was estimated to be around €5.1 billion.

The French government has long contributed the lion’s share of expenditure on environmental R&D. This government expenditure can be broken down into three fields of research with specific objectives (Environment – Monitoring and protecting the global environment, Exploration and exploitation of the earth and sea, Natural environments, see chapter A5). The proportion of expenditure on environmental R&D implemented by government peaked at more than 81% in 2000. The gap between public and private sector stakeholders has been gradually shrinking ever since. In 2014, businesses implemented 51% of expenditure or 65% if the fields of Energy and Transport are excluded (chart 44.01).

In the business sector, environmental R&D, including Energy and Transport, accounted for 8.4% (€2.6 billion) of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by the private sector in 2014. Four branches implemented 70% of expenditure on environmental R&D and accounted for 34% of intramural business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD): ‘Manufacture of motor vehicles’, ‘Energy’, ‘Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products’ and ‘Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery’ (chart 44.02).

In 2014, the French government spent €2.5 billion on environmental R&D. Taken in its narrow sense (excluding Energy and Transport), environmental R&D absorbed 49% (€1.3 billion) of this expenditure. The main area of research within environmental R&D was ‘Monitoring and protecting the environment’, followed by ‘University research into natural environments’ (chart 44.03).

5% of the MIRES budget allocations for R&D went towards environmental research in 2016 (chart 44.04a and chart 44.04b). Those assigned to the various objectives within this field totalled €0.69 billion. The Energy and Transport objectives, which include environmental considerations, accounted for 8% of budget allocations. In 2016, the French National Research Agency (ANR) and Bpifrance, together with the government departments responsible for ecology and industry, committed to providing more than €140 million in funding for R&D in environmental technologies or those that factor in environmental impacts. The French Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research (MENESR) contributed €114 million, most of which was devoted to training through research and university research.

 Coverage:Whole of France.

How to cite this paper :

NISSLÉ Claudette-Vincent. Environmental research and development. In: Higher education & research in France, facts and figures - 49 indicators [online]. KABLA-LANGLOIS Isabelle (dir.). Paris: Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, 2017. 10th ed. Chapter 44 [Accessed 08/24/2019]. ISBN 978-2-11-152033-2. https://publication.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/eesr/10EN/EESR10EN_R_44-environmental_research_and_development.php

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Business sector: data taken from the annual survey of businesses that carry out R&D in France.

Public sector: data collected from the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of MIRES budget allocations for R&D, as well as from the results of the R&D survey on the expenditure and resources of dedicated state research institutions.

Socio-economic objectives are understood to mean the aim of the R&D in question. They can be used to measure the total funding devoted to specific objectives within public research and are categorised using a classification system to allow for comparisons with other countries.

The multidisciplinary nature of environmental R&D is taken into account in different ways for businesses and the public sector:

- businesses: the survey asks businesses what proportion (%) of their intramural R&D expenditure they devote to environmental protection.

- public sector: the survey on the breakdown by socio-economic objective of budget allocations reveals a provisional level of funding committed that makes it possible to establish what percentage of allocations devoted to environmental R&D are used. This percentage is then applied to the total intramural government expenditure on R&D (GOVERD) taken from the annual R&D survey.

The classification of environmental protection activities and expenditure (Cepa 2000) (chapter A5) is a Europe-wide generic, multi-purpose, functional classification for environmental protection. It is used to classify activities, as well as products, actual outlays (expenditure) and other transactions. It does not include the management of natural resources (such as the supply of water) or the prevention of natural hazards (such as landslides and flooding). For this reason, business enterprise expenditure on ‘environmental’ R&D is often estimated using a broader scope. As a result, the data presented in this analysis are not directly comparable with those obtained on the basis of the Cepa 2000 concepts.

 

Key figures


Share of gross domestic expenditure on R&D devoted to the environment
11%
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "44. environmental research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES
Gross domestic expenditure on R&D devoted to the environment
5 bn
 
2014
Whole of France
 
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Extract from the chapter "44. environmental research and development".

Source: MENESR-DGESIP/DGRI-SIES

44.01 Proportion of expenditure on environmental R&D by businesses and the public sector in 2000 and 2014 (%)

2000
2014
2014
Environment (including Energy and Transport)
Environment (excluding Energy and Transport)
  
Businesses
Public sector
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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44.02 Intramural BERD devoted to environmental R&D in 6 research branches in 2014 (€M, %)

Energy
Agri-food industry
Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products
Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery
Manufacture of motor vehicles
  
Intramural BERD devoted to environmental R&D
Intramural BERD excluding environmental R&D
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

You can embed this chart to your website or your blog by copying the HTML code and pasting it into the source code of your website / blog:

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44.03 Different areas of research as a proportion of all environmental R&D by the public sector in 2014 (%)

Monitoring and protecting the environment
Natural environments
Exploration and exploitation of the earth and sea
Energy
Transports
 
 
Environmental R&D
  
2000
2014
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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44.04a The MIRES budget allocations for R&D in 2016 - Amounts devoted to environmental R&D and other socio-economic objectives (€M)

  
Monitoring and protection of the atmosphere and climate
Other measures for monitoring and protecting the environment
Weather and climate research
R&D in clean technologies and products
Impact of forestry, agricultural and piscicultural activities on environment
Natural environment and associated environmental sciences
Earth : exploration and exploitation
Production from and exploitation of the sea
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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44.04b MIRES budget allocations for R&D in 2016 - Breakdown by socio-economic objective of allocations devoted to environmental R&D, energy and transport (€M)

  
Production, distribution and rational use of energy
Energy performance
Nuclear energy and radioactive waste management
Water and ground transportation vehicules industries 
Aeronautical transportation industry
 
 
 Coverage: Whole of France.

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Other editions

Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 9th edition - November 2016
45 - environmental research and development - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé
In 2013, R&D expenditure devoted either directly or indirectly to environmental issues was estimated to be €5 billion, equivalent to 10% of France’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D. 60% of expenditure on environmental research and development (excluding Energy and Transport) was incurred by businesses (compared with 20% in 2000) [Consult the following page]
Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheHigher education & research in France, facts and figures 8th edition - November 2015
43 - environmental research and development - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé
In 2012, R&D expenditure devoted either directly or indirectly to environmental issues was estimated to be €5 billion, equivalent to 11% of France’s gross domestic expenditure on R&D. Nearly 60% of expenditure on environmental research and development (excluding Energy and Transport) was incurred by businesses (compared with 20% in 2000) [Consult the following page]

Translation

 Etat de l'enseignement supérieur et de la rechercheL'état de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche en France n°10 - Avril 2017
44 - la recherche en environnement - Claudette-Vincent Nisslé
En 2014, les dépenses de R&D consacrées directement ou indirectement à l’environnement sont évaluée à plus de 5 milliards d’euros (Md€), soit 11 % de la dépense intérieure de R&D. La moitié des dépenses de R&D en environnement (hors Énergie et Transports) est prise en charge par les entreprises (contre 20 % en 2000) [Consult the following page in french]


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