La dépense intérieure d'éducation est estimée à 137,4 milliards d'euros en 2011. Cela représente une baisse de 0,4 % par rapport à l'année précédente, en euros constants. L'effort consenti par la collectivité nationale pour le fonctionnement et le développement du système éducatif correspond à 6,9 % du produit intérieur brut. En 2009, selon les dernières statistiques internationales disponibles, cet effort est légèrement plus important en France que dans la moyenne des pays de l' OCDE (+ 0,1 point).
At the start of the 2012-13 academic year, according to forecasts based on the provisional results of the baccalauréat and the course choices seen in previous years, student numbers seemed set to increase by 1.5% across higher education as a whole.
The number of students entering higher education increased, with this rise probably linked with the new influx of students with a vocational baccalauréat from the 2012 exam session. Looking ahead to 2021, the number of general baccalauréat holders will probably increase by 12.1% compared with 2011, while the number of technological baccalauréat holders seems set to decline by 9.6%. Numbers of students with a vocational baccalauréat will adjust after the cyclical peak of 2012 (-9.5% between 2012 and 2021), but are likely to remain higher than in 2011 (+9.7%). Following this influx of general baccalauréats, if trends in terms of career guidance and continuing education were to continue, student numbers would likely increase by 11% in universities between 2011 and 2021, 9.5% in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles - CPGE) and 4.5% in Technological university institutes (¦Institut universitaire de technologie - ¦IUT). The increase in Advanced technician’s sections (¦Section de technicien supérieur - ¦STS) will probably be more moderate (3.1%).
The changes in directions taken by students in the baccalauréat S series are mainly characterised by a growing dispersion in their choices: in 2008, only 21% enrolled in a Bachelor's degree programme, whereas this figure was 35% ten years ago. However, this decline only affects Bachelor's degrees in the sciences, and more generally fewer and fewer holders of the baccalauréat S are taking the traditional scientific courses. At the same time, more and more are going into medicine (or pharmacy), or in a wide range of fields in schools that recruit after the baccalauréat. These changes concern all those with a baccalauréat S, irrespective of their speciality or their grades. Three years later, more baccalauréat S students were enrolling in the Bachelor's degree programme, especially in the science subjects, where they continue their studies after first going through a Technological university institute (¦Institut universitaire de technologie - ¦IUT), classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles or a first cycle of medical studies. However, 36% were in higher education schools, mainly engineering or paramedical schools.
In 2010, gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) stood at €43.4 billion, up by 2.8% in volume compared with 2009. The increase in GERD was the result of a sustained increase in business research and development (R&D) expenditure. Firms contributed around 1.65 percentage points to the increase in GERD, with government accounting for 1.15 points. The research intensity for the country as a whole, measured as the ratio of GERD to GDP, stood at 2.24% in 2010. This should remain stable 2.25% in 2011. Due to a slight slowdown in government expenditure, GERD is likely to increase in 2011 at a lower rate (+2.2% in volume), but this will still be a faster rate than that of GDP (+1.7% in volume). In 2010, R&D activities in business enterprises and government mobilised 393,000 full-time equivalent staff.
Germany carries out more research and development (R&D) than France. This gap is due to a difference in scale between the two countries. It is also due to a greater research intensity in Germany: expenditure on R&D amounts to 2.82% of GDP in Germany, compared to 2.26% in France. The difference can also be attributed to the economic structure of the two countries: most R&D is carried out in industry and in Germany industry plays a more significant role in the economy than in France. In addition, German industry is highly specialised in the most R&D-intensive activities. However, the research intensity in firms that do carry out R&D, although slightly greater in Germany, only accounts for a small difference in this research expenditure. In France, high technology industries allocate a greater proportion of their turnover to research than their German counterparts.
Eight out of ten baccalauréat holders enrolling in their first year of a Bachelor's degree programme say that their course is the kind they had hoped to be doing at the end of their final year at high school. However, 38% had not put this course at the top of their list of choices for their path. Some had been accepted on different courses from their present degree course, but had not enrolled; others (25% overall) could be said to have enrolled in their degree course 'by default'. These students were less satisfied with the guidance they had received and the way that the Admission Post-Bac (APB) website worked, and fewer of them had benefitted from measures in the government's Plan for Success in Bachelor's Degree Programmes. Satisfaction with guidance information available before entering university continued to grow, with the internet becoming the most cited information source. Three quarters of those enrolling for the first time in first year hoped to continue studying for their Bachelor's degree, with more than half hoping to go on to a Master's degree. Fewer and fewer students hope to become teachers (31% compared with 45% in 2006).
During the 2010-2011 academic year, more than 96,000 teachers held posts in public higher education institutions. Their total numbers are increasing constantly, with 3,200 more teachers than in the previous year, or +3.4%, mainly due to the share of non-permanent teachers. Of these teachers, 56,000 belonged to the teacher-researcher corps - including those with specific statuses - whose number had increased 8.1% in ten years. 13,000 teachers under contracts in secondary education posts and 27,000 non-permanent teachers also contributed to university teaching.
91% of young Master's graduates from 2008 who decided to end their studies after obtaining this diploma were in a job thirty months after joining the professional world. The percentage was the same for the small number graduating with a University technology diploma delivered by the IUT (¦Diplôme universitaire de technologie - ¦DUT) who were in the same position and for 92% of the much larger group with a vocational degree who fulfilled the same conditions. Some Master's graduates had more difficulty finding work, or had terms of employment that were less favourable. This was the case for humanities and arts graduates, for graduates from a less privileged social background, or for women. In 44% of cases, the job that Master's graduates were doing thirty months after obtaining their diploma was not located in the same region as their university. The Île-de-France region alone receives 30% of such graduates, while 15% of them have a job abroad.
One recent change in the study path followed by young people in higher education is that they now leave their studies at a higher level: one third of pupils from the generation that entered the first year of secondary education in 1995 left the education system with at least a diploma at level baccalauréat + 3 years, compared with only a quarter from the previous generation, who entered the first year in 1989. In all, 44% obtained a diploma or certificate in recognition of at least two years of study after the baccalauréat. There are some significant differences according to social background: two out of three children of teachers reached the level of baccalauréat + 3 or more years' study, whereas this was the case for only one out of ten children of manual workers. The path taken in secondary education is a determining factor for continuing studies into higher education and the success achieved: the rate of successful completion of a higher education diploma ranges from 89% for those taking a general baccalauréat to 64% for the technological baccalauréat and 19% for the vocational baccalauréat. One in five young people going into higher education left with no diploma; most of these were enrolled in an Advanced technician’s section (¦Section de techniciens supérieurs - ¦STS).
The reform of the vocational study route substantially increased the numbers of vocational baccalauréat holders. Although the aim of this baccalauréat is first and foremost to prepare young people for immediate occupational integration, the number of students moving on to higher education is also increasing, both under school status and through alternance programmes. 42% of those passing their baccalauréat continue their studies. The vast majority enrol in Advanced technician’s sections (¦Sections de techniciens supérieurs - ¦STS) where results are mixed, with almost half obtaining their diploma. When they enrol in the general study tracks in universities, very few obtain their Bachelor's degree. A quarter of them quit their studies one year after enrolling in the first year of a Bachelor's degree course.
Since 2008, territorial authorities have spent more than one billion euros each year on research and technology transfer (R&T). With 60% of R&T budgets being spent on real estate transactions and technology transfer, the territorial authorities of all levels work together in a concerted fashion to strengthen a region's innovation potential and attractiveness. When they finance R&D work directly, the authorities tend to favour first and foremost research in higher education and local SMEs. From 2007 to 2010, an average of €349 million was spent per year on the research branch of the State-region project contract (¦Contrat de projet État-région - ¦CPER). Through this contract, 42% of real estate funding went to university buildings. The regional councils provided 69% of R&T budgets for metropolitan areas, or 748 million euros per year on average from 2007 to 2010. They devoted 15% of their R&T budget to competitiveness clusters.
In France, the research effort of business enterprises, the main explanatory factor of the research and development (R&D) performance of industrialised countries, has not improved much since the beginning of the 2000s. It has stabilised around 1.4% of GDP. Yet the most R&D-intensive industries allocate more than one third of their value added to research, and this proportion is increasing. The decline of industry, where 80% of R&D work is concentrated, has slowed the improvement in the research effort by the private sector. Its apparent stability masks an increased research effort in many industrial and service activities. Despite the economic crisis, this improvement in business enterprise research intensity continued in 2008 and 2009.
At the start of the 2011-12 academic year, 79,800 students were enrolled in classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (Classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles - CPGE), 0.7% more than in the previous year. Numbers were up for all three study tracks: scientific (+0.2%), economics and social sciences (+0.6%) and arts and humanities (+3.1%). The CPGE recruit mainly students with a general baccalauréat (95%). However, there are more and more students with a technological baccalauréat and their share has increased since 2001, especially in the economics track, where they represent 10% of newly enrolled students. The proportion of women has increased slightly since 2001, but gender equality has still not be achieved (42%). However, the proportion of women differs between study tracks: fewer than one third of students in science are women, whereas women represent 74% of students in the humanities. 50% in CPGE are from a very privileged background and a little over a quarter are scholarship students.
Pour sa sixième édition, la brochure filles et garçons sur le chemin de l’égalité de l’école à l’enseignement supérieur compare les principales données statistiques disponibles en matière de parcours et de réussite des jeunes : répartition selon les niveaux d’enseignement, résultats scolaires, choix d’orientation, poursuite d’études après le baccalauréat et insertion professionnelle.
En France comme au niveau européen, les filles sont plus diplômées à la sortie du système éducatif. Elles se distinguent par une meilleure maîtrise de la langue, de moindres difficultés en lecture et des scores plus élevés en compréhension de l’écrit. Elles ont des résultats équivalents à ceux des garçons en sciences, mais semblent avoir moins confiance dans leur capacité scientifique.
Cet ensemble de données constitue un état de situation national qui peut être décliné, au niveau académique et au niveau des établissements scolaires. Il permet de disposer d’éléments qui aideront à la mise en place de politiques en faveur de l’égalité des sexes. Cette égalité, ambition politique collective, projet d’intégration sociale, est au cœur des missions de l’école de la République.
The 2012 regional atlas reflects the diversity of the French higher education system. In a series of maps, graphs and tables it shows the distribution of students across French territory, by study track, by major subject area or by study cycle. It gives details of student numbers by agglomeration according to course type. This atlas is an essential tool that provides an understanding of the way higher education is structured throughout the territory, and can be used for the development of regional strategies.