As in previous editions, this 4th edition of The State of Higher Education and Research presents a detailed overview, backed up by figures, of current developments within the French system, the resources it deploys and its outcomes, situating it, wherever data permit, in relation to its international counterparts.
Higher Education and Research, Facts and Figures 2010 provides an annual overview, backed up by figures, of the French higher education and research system, in order to show where the country stands internationally and to monitor changes, especially over the long term. Funding, human resources, access to higher education, pass rates, qualifications, integration of graduates into working life, student life, research in biotechnology or nanotechnology, participation in FP7, publications, patents, etc. - all these topics are covered in the 35 fact sheets that make up the 4th edition (2010) of this work.
In 2009-2010, 87,800 students were following courses in one of the 84 recognised business schools authorised to award approved diplomas. This was an increase of 18.6% against the start of the 2008-09 academic year. Newly enrolled students had either just passed their baccalauréat and were going to schools that recruited baccalauréat holders, or they came from classes preparing for admission to the Grandes Ecoles (¦Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles - ¦CPGE), from universities, from Advanced technician’s sections (¦Section de technicien supérieur - ¦STS) or from Technological university institutes (Institut universitaire de technologie - IUT) and were entering schools that recruited students with the baccalauréat + 2 years of study. Men outnumbered women slightly, but the proportion of women was increasing steadily. More and more foreign students were following courses in business and management schools. As with women students, there were fewer foreign students in the first cycle programmes and a greater proportion in the Master of Business Administration (MBA) courses.
There have never been so many students in higher education in metropolitan France and the overseas departments: 2,316,000 at the start of the 2009-10 academic year. Numbers increased substantially (+3.7%), the largest rise since 1993.
First enrolments in universities increased more than numbers of baccalauréat holders for the year. The rise in student numbers affected almost all courses, except for teacher training colleges (Institut universitaire de formation des maîtres - IUFM). It was especially sharp in recognised business schools awarding approved diplomas.
The private education sector continued to grow and more women had higher education diplomas than men. All the education authorities saw an increase in student population, apart from Dijon which remained at its 2008 level. The number of foreign students (+4.8%) increased more than the number of French students (+3.5%) and they now represent 12.0% of students. Chinese student numbers continued to increase very rapidly, becoming the second contingent of foreign students, after Moroccans.
At the start of the 2010-11 academic year, according to forecasts based on the provisional results of the baccalauréat and the course choices seen in previous years, student numbers seemed set to increase by 1.4% across higher education as a whole. The number of students continuing their studies into 2010-11 was up in healthcare and law; there was a decrease in enrolments in first year at university, but all programmes combined, there was an overall increase in university student numbers (excluding University technology institutes (¦Institut universitaire de technologie - ¦IUT)). Looking ahead to 2019, there are expected to be 20,000 more enrolments in the four main study paths: universities, Advanced technician’s sections (¦Section de technicien supérieur - ¦STS), classes preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (¦Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles - ¦CPGE), and non-university engineering courses. Box: main assumptions used for forecasts.
In 2009-2010, there were 1,450,000 students enrolled in French universities (including universities in overseas departments). The number of new baccalauréat holders enrolling in universities increased in the general study programmes (+3.5%). These students tended to take up Law, Economics, and Physical education and sports science and techniques (¦Sciences et techniques des activités physiques et sportives - ¦STAPS).
However, there were fewer doctoral students at the start of the academic year in 2009 than in 2008. There were more foreign students at the university than in previous years: they represented 15.5% of all students.
In the PhD programme they represented 41.0% of the student population. In Technological university institutes (¦Institut universitaire de technologie - ¦IUT), numbers were stabilising after increasing for three successive years.
Numbers of students at Teacher training colleges (¦Institut universitaire de formation des maîtres - ¦IUFM) integrated into universities continued to fall by 6.5%.
Over the last ten years there has been a reduction in the number of new baccalauréat holders enrolling in Bachelor's degree programmes, as they tend to prefer schools recruiting directly after the baccalauréat. Those with a general baccalauréat but without a distinction are the largest group to go into these schools, but they are also more likely to interrupt their studies. Those with a technological baccalauréat are less likely to enrol at university and in Advanced technician’s sections (¦Section de technicien supérieur - ¦STS). Nine out of ten newly qualified baccalauréat holders were able to take the study track they wanted; however, one out of three new students say they are not very interested in the subjects they are studying. Boxes: the increasing role of the internet in providing information on choosing a study path; source: baccalauréat student panels.
This 2010 atlas shows numbers of students enrolled in higher education institutions and courses in 2008-2009, drawn from the information systems and surveys produced by the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research, the Ministry of Education, and the ministries for Agriculture, Fisheries, Health and Sports. The geographical unit used in this atlas is the urban unit, which is the equivalent of an agglomeration; for Île-de-France and the French overseas collectivities, the geographical unit used is the commune.
In 2007, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) stood at €39 billion and represented 2.07% of GDP. GERD has grown on average by 1.0% per year since 2004. Five tables show the research staff headcount in business enterprises and government in 2007; research effort indicators in the main OECD countries; intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure and public funding received by research branch; scale and nature of public funding received by business enterprises; intramural government R&D expenditure by sector of execution. Graphs show: funding and performance of research in France in 2007, contributions from business enterprises and government to changes in GERD between 2000 and 2008, changes in business enterprise R&D extramural expenditure between 2000 and 2007, external funding for intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in 2006 and 2007, structure of funding for public research and corresponding amounts. Boxes: research on nanotechnologies; fiscal measures in favour of research; budget funding for R&D; sources and definitions.
Marqué par un essor rapide en début de période (loi de janvier 2002), le nombre total de VAE délivrées stagne depuis 2006. La part que représentent les diplômes complets accordés reste croissante. Les diplômes les plus recherchés sont les masters et la licence professionnelle. Les sciences économiques, la gestion et l'AES regroupent le plus de demandes. En encadrés : source ; l'accompagnement en VAE, les dispositifs de validation des acquis, la VAP 85.
Cette brochure présente les parcours scolaires comparés des filles et des garçons au niveau national. Elle donne ainsi la possibilité aux élèves d'avoir une plus large visibilité sur la diversité et le contenu des cursus pour leur orientation.
Elle regroupe, sous forme de tableaux et de graphiques, les principales données statistiques disponibles sur les parcours scolaires comparés des filles et des garçons.
At the start of the 2009-10 academic year, there were almost 222,000 students in Advanced technician's sections (¦Sections de techniciens supérieurs - ¦STS). There was an increase in baccalauréat holders choosing production specialities and service-related fields. The proportion of students with a technological baccalauréat declined, but numbers of vocational baccalauréat holders continued to rise, with 84% of them going on to 2nd year. Box: sources and definitions.
In 2008, 78.2% of new baccalauréat holders entered higher education. The general study tracks at university mainly take in students with a general baccalauréat: law, economics, and economic and social administration (¦Administrative, Économique et Sociale - ¦AES) study tracks for those with an economics and social sciences baccalauréat; arts, languages, humanities, for those with an arts and humanities baccalauréat; sciences, physical education and sports science and techniques (¦Sciences et techniques des activités physiques et sportives - ¦STAPS), and medical subjects for those with a scientific baccalauréat. In University technology institutes (¦Institut universitaire de technologie - ¦IUT) 68.5% of students have a general baccalauréat, while those with a technological baccalauréat tend to enrol in Advanced technician's sections (¦Section de technicien supérieur - ¦STS). Those enrolling in a class preparing for admission to Grandes Écoles (¦Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles - ¦CPGE) mainly have a general baccalauréat. In the business schools, more than one in two students hold an economic and social baccalauréat. Boxes: study tracks open to different baccalauréat series; sources and scope.
En 2007, les établissements supérieurs publics ont réalisé un chiffre d'affaires de 323 millions d'euros au titre de la formation continue pour un public de 454 000 stagiaires, dont 77 % dans les universités. Le nombre de stagiaires sous contrat de professionnalisation a doublé depuis 2005. Les formations courtes sont en hausse (diplômes d'université), de même que les masters professionnels et les licences professionnelles. L'enseignement à distance, dont 16 % au CNAM, ne bénéficie qu'à une minorité de stagiaires. En encadrés : sources, champ et définitions.
In 2008, the number of foreign students in higher education increased by 2.3%; they represented 11.9% of all students. Over a third were studying in an education authority in the Ile-de-France region. Table 1 gives numbers and proportions of foreign students by type of institution in 1998-99, 2003-2004 and 2008-2009; Table 2 gives a breakdown by nationality and course type. The largest number of international students are from Morocco; the fastest-growing group is the Chinese. Maps: proportion of students by country of origin; proportion of foreign students by education authority. Box: source and definitions. Note on major institutions (Grands établissements).
In 2008-2009, there were 1,410,000 students enrolled in French public universities. Teacher training colleges (¦Instituts Universitaires de formation des maîtres - ¦IUFM) are integrated into a home university, with the exception of those in the Antilles and Guyana. The new intake of baccalauréat holders showed a declining interest in the sciences and humanities study tracks at university; more tended to enrol in Law and in Economic and social administration. The proportion of foreign students increased by 1.5%; the proportion of young women was 57% (excluding IUFM). A table shows university student numbers by education authority and institution, differentiating between IUFM and non-IUFM students. Box: source and definitions.