In 2009, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) stood at €42.7 billion, up 3.5% in volume compared with 2008. This increase is likely to be less sustained in 2010 (+1.4% in volume). In 2009, the GERD/GDP ratio, which measures the nation's research effort, reached its highest level since 1996: it stood at 2.26% and this is likely to be maintained in 2010. The significant rise in GERD is the result of an increased effort on the part of the government, which contributed as much as 2.4 percentage points to this growth. Despite the economic and financial crisis, business enterprises have continued their work in research: they contributed around 1.1 points to the rise in GERD. At the same time, employment in research is increasing at the same pace as in 2008 (+2%). In 2009, 394,000 people were working in research and development (R&D) in business enterprises and in government.
In 2008, the Île-de-France region retained its predominant role in research and development. However, setting aside size effects, a combination of various indicators regarding the level and structure of public and private research in the regions provides an alternative cartography, revealing four groups with relatively similar behaviours: regions with a strong research potential, regions where public research and SMEs are particularly active, regions with a profile similar to the average, and regions where research is primarily carried out by business enterprises and where public research is done primarily by universities. One region, isolated because of the degree of specialisation of its R&D activities, makes up a fifth group. The French regions are mainly differentiated from one another by the weight in public research of state-owned industrial and commercial establishments (¦Établissement public à caractère industriel et commercial - ¦EPIC) and universities, and by the importance of high technology in private research.
In 2008, gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) increased by 1.8% in volume, reaching € 41 bn. GERD is likely to increase at a sustained pace once again in 2009 (+2% in volume), and faster than GDP. For the first time since 2003, the GERD/GDP ratio, which measures the nation's research effort, increased. In 2008 it was 2.11% after 2.07% in 2007. It should reach 2.21% in 2009. After two years of significant increases in their budget allocations, universities are becoming the foremost sector for public research. In the private sector, R&D expenditure increased by €1 bn in 2008. Employment in research maintained its steady growth, especially for researchers. In 2008, there were 229,000 people working as researchers in France.
Higher Education and Research, Facts and Figures 2010 provides an annual overview, backed up by figures, of the French higher education and research system, in order to show where the country stands internationally and to monitor changes, especially over the long term. Funding, human resources, access to higher education, pass rates, qualifications, integration of graduates into working life, student life, research in biotechnology or nanotechnology, participation in FP7, publications, patents, etc. - all these topics are covered in the 35 fact sheets that make up the 4th edition (2010) of this work.
As in previous editions, this 4th edition of The State of Higher Education and Research presents a detailed overview, backed up by figures, of current developments within the French system, the resources it deploys and its outcomes, situating it, wherever data permit, in relation to its international counterparts.
In 2007, gross domestic expenditure on research and development (GERD) stood at €39 billion and represented 2.07% of GDP. GERD has grown on average by 1.0% per year since 2004. Five tables show the research staff headcount in business enterprises and government in 2007; research effort indicators in the main OECD countries; intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure and public funding received by research branch; scale and nature of public funding received by business enterprises; intramural government R&D expenditure by sector of execution. Graphs show: funding and performance of research in France in 2007, contributions from business enterprises and government to changes in GERD between 2000 and 2008, changes in business enterprise R&D extramural expenditure between 2000 and 2007, external funding for intramural business enterprise R&D expenditure in 2006 and 2007, structure of funding for public research and corresponding amounts. Boxes: research on nanotechnologies; fiscal measures in favour of research; budget funding for R&D; sources and definitions.
Higher Education and Research, Facts and Figures provides an annual overview, backed up by figures, of the French higher education and research system, in order to show where the country stands internationally and to monitor changes, especially over the long term. Funding, human resources, access to higher education, pass rates, qualifications, integration of graduates into working life, student life, research in biotechnology or nanotechnology, participation in FP7, publications, patents, etc. - all these topics are covered in the 35 fact sheets that make up the 3rd edition (2009) of this work.
En 2006, la dépense intérieure de recherche et développement (DIRD) s'élève à 37,9 milliards d'euros et est estimée à 34,4 Md d'euros en 2007. La DIRD croît en moyenne de 1,0 % par an depuis 2004. Cinq tableaux donnent les effectifs de recherche des entreprises et des administrations en 2006, les indicateurs de l'effort de recherche des principaux pays de l'OCDE, les dépenses intérieures de R&D des entreprises et financements publics reçus par branche de recherche, l'importance et la nature des financements publics reçus par les entreprises, les dépenses intérieures de R&D des administrations par secteur d'exécution. En graphiques : le financement et l'exécution de la recherche en France en 2006, les contributions des entreprises et des administrations à l'évolution de la DIRD entre 2000 et 2006, l'évolution de la DERDE, les financements extérieurs de la DIRDE entre 2004 et 2006, la structure de financement de la recherche publique et la répartition du budget recherche de la MIRES 2006 par objectifs. En encadrés : les domaines de recherche, les mesures fiscales en faveur de la recherche : CIR et JEI, sources et définitions.
This second revised and expanded edition reflects France's interest in those two indispensable and inseparable growth drivers, Higher Education and Research, with intelligence, competitiveness and innovation at the forefront. In its design, the work is intended to be clear, user-friendly and transparent. It is by definition an information tool available to the public. It covers public policy and strategic decisions taken on behalf of the Nation. It is also intended to be a management tool for decision-makers.